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Super Soldier Serum

Super Soldier Serum


"The desire to become a superhuman cannot be separated from supremacist ideals. Anyone with that serum is inherently on that path."
―Baron Zemo[src]

The Super Soldier Serum is a chemical solution originally created by Abraham Erskine. The serum was formulated to enhance the human body and mind, and was intended to be utilized by the United States Armed Forces during World War II in order to transform Allied soldiers into super soldiers.

Over the decades, it has been recreated by several parties, most with a considerable degree of success. It is notably responsible for the physical enhancement of Johann Schmidt, Steve Rogers, Bucky Barnes, Isaiah Bradley, Bruce Banner, Emil Blonsky, Karli Morgenthau, and John Walker.



Abraham Erskine began developing the Super Soldier Serum in 1930 while still in Germany.[1] In 1931, Wilfred Malick delivered the key ingredient used to create the serum to HYDRA.[2]

World War II

Ten years later, in 1940, a prototype version of the serum was tested on Johann Schmidt, turning him into Red Skull in the process.[1] However, the formula wasn't ready for use at the time, and the serum's effects affected Schmidt's personality drastically.[3] Schmidt's transformation didn't go as planned because his Super Soldier Serum lacked radioactive exposure, causing the burning away of the skin and tissue surrounding his skull as well as leaving an unpleasant red scab on his nasal cavity.[4]

After Abraham Erskine escaped to the United States of America, he joined the Strategic Scientific Reserve and perfected the serum. As a result, the SSR started Project Rebirth, an initiative to use the serum and transform Allied soldiers into super soldiers. Using Vita Radiation to unlock the serum's potential, Erskine successfully used the serum on the scrawny and sickly Steve Rogers, curing his ailments and increasing his physicality. Unfortunately, Erskine was killed and the last vial of the original serum was destroyed by HYDRA agent Heinz Kruger. Knowing that the only hope to recreate Erskine's formula was locked in Rogers' genetic code, the U.S. government took blood from Rogers, as the last remnants of the serum remained in Rogers' DNA.[3]

In October 1943, HYDRA captured numerous U.S. military soldiers and sent them to work at the top-secret weapons facility in the Austrian Alps. When the prisoners were too weak to work, Arnim Zola used them as test subjects in his quest to recreate the serum. Bucky Barnes was injected with the serum and survived, although Zola abandoned his work and fled when Rogers stormed the facility, liberating Barnes.[3][5]

During the first icy months of 1945, Rogers and Barnes led an attack on the HYDRA train that was transporting Zola to another base. During the fight, Barnes fell from the train and fell several hundred feet below. However, due to the serum, Barnes was able to survive the impact, albeit losing his left arm in the process.[5]

Cold War

"A handful of us got shot up with different versions of that serum, but they don't tell us what it is. They tell us it's tetanus. They sent us on missions, even though the others weren't stable. Some of us started dying off. "
―Isaiah Bradley to Sam Wilson[src]

During the Cold War, Isaiah Bradley, a soldier in the United States Armed Forces, was used as a test subject in an effort by the U.S. military to recreate the Super Soldier Serum. After surviving and becoming a super soldier, he was deployed during the Korean War to assassinate Bucky Barnes, who had been brainwashed by HYDRA to become the super soldier assassin Winter Soldier. Despite serving his country, Bradley was imprisoned for thirty years and had his blood constantly extracted by various organizations, including HYDRA[6] and the CIA.[7].

Winter Soldier Program

By December 1991, Howard Stark managed to recreate the Super Soldier Serum, prompting HYDRA to send Winter Soldier to assassinate Stark and his wife Maria and retrieve the serum. This serum was injected intravenously without Vita Radiation or a Vita-Ray Chamber, and was used by HYDRA to convert their most elite death squad into Winter Soldiers. The serum granted its user more strength than HYDRA's previous version, as one subject, Josef, was shown to overpower and send Winter Soldier flying during a sparring match.

However, this version of the serum had a mental side effect, giving the Winter Soldiers an increase in aggression and making them uncontrollable. They soon turned on HYDRA and thus were incapacitated and placed in cryostasis.[8] Deeming Stark's serum to be a failure, HYDRA recruited Dr. Wilfred Nagel to recreate the serum in order to create more stable Winter Soldiers. Before Nagel could finish his work, HYDRA had been disbanded.[7]

Bio-Tech Force Enhancement

Two days after the September 11 attacks, General Thaddeus Ross was commissioned to recreate the serum in order to create new super soldiers for the United States Armed Forces. In order to recreate the serum, Doctor Bruce Banner, a renowned scientist specializing in the fields of biochemistry, nuclear physics and gamma radiation was recruited into the project. However, General Ross chose not to divulge the serum's true properties to Banner, instead informing him that the serum he was tasked to recreate had been designed to prevent radiation poisoning.[9]

Banner chose to substitute the original serum's vita radiation with gamma radiation, believing it held the secret of unlocking the original serum's formula.[10] Unaware that it was a recreated Super Soldier Serum, Banner injected himself with it and was doused with an overabundance of gamma radiation, causing Banner to transform into a large, green-skinned being that soon became known as the "Hulk".

However, a variant of the serum had been recreated and was given to Emil Blonsky through multiple deep tissue and bone marrow injections, transforming Blonsky into a super soldier. However, this version of the serum had several side effects, including both physical and mental deterioration, such as a protruded spine and aggression. After Blonsky was given a transfusion of Hulk's blood, it mixed with the serum in his system and mutated him into the "Abomination".[9]

Centipede Project

By 2013, HYDRA had access to an imperfect variant of the Super Soldier Serum, which they combined with Extremis, Gamma Radiation and Chitauri technology to create the Centipede Serum.[11]


"They had blood samples from an American test subject with semi-stable traces of serum in his system. After much labor, I was able to isolate the necessary compounds in his blood. I was a god. I did what no other scientist since Erskine was able to do. "
―Wilfred Nagel[src]

Following HYDRA's disbandment, Dr. Wilfred Nagel was recruited by the CIA, who wished for him to recreate the serum. Nagel was able to make significant strides in his endeavors, as the CIA possessed samples of Isaiah Bradley's blood. By 2018, Nagel managed to isolate the trace elements of serum in Bradley's blood to recreate the original serum, but modified it so that its users did not undergo any physical changes, along with being able to self-inject the serum without the need for a machine such as the Vita-Ray Chamber used during Project Rebirth.

However, before he could synthesize his work, Nagel was turned to dust as a result of Thanos' Snap. Five years later, he was restored to life in the Blip, only to find out that the CIA had terminated their super soldier program. Nagel then fled to Madripoor, where the Power Broker provided him with the resources to synthesize the serum. By 2024, Nagel successfully created twenty vials, although they were stolen by Karli Morgenthau, who used the serum on herself and gave other vials to certain members of the Flag Smashers.[7]

Morgenthau hid the remaining nine vials of the serum with the intention to create more super soldiers. However, while trying to flee from John Walker, Morgenthau was ambushed by Helmut Zemo, who destroyed eight vials before being knocked out by Walker. As Morgenthau fled, Walker found the sole remaining vial and later injected himself with it, becoming a super soldier.[12]


The serum's general effect is to enhance and perfect the recipient physiology as well as emphasizing key personality traits, which can be a liability if a subject is immoral, suffer from unresolved trauma and mental disorders.

After a series of injections into the subject major muscle groups it cause immediate change and increase cell division and cell density through synthetic proteins complex, enhance the subjects metabolic processes and augment the effects of the dopamine, testosterone, adrenaline, various other endorphins and hormones, to further amplify physical and mental performances, healing abilities in addition to a greater resistance to toxins and pathogens. Effectively granting an enhanced and perfected physiology with superhuman physical abilities and enhanced mental processes.

Dr. Erskine's original serum worked more effectively when the recipient's body was saturated with Vita Radiation, as it stimulate growth and accelerate the changes toward the body's final enhanced condition within a minute, although not without pain. Gamma radiation work similarly but the results are apparently significantly higher, substituting Vita radiation with Gamma radiation when testing his own version of the serum on himself, Bruce Banner turned into the unstoppable and uncontrollable raging monster known as Hulk. Because of that, his serum was deemed a failure however, as Thaddeus Ross pointed out, it may as well be a success and the disassociated personality and unruly nature of the Hulk, may have resulted from Banner deeply rooted personal trauma brought forth by the serum abilities to accentuate personality traits.

Subsequent versions of the serum made slight adjustment and improvement in it's effectiveness, storage requirement and administration. Not much is known about Arnim Zola's version given to Bucky Barnes but it did not seem to enhance his personality traits, it only augmented his physicality and made him more durable than most of the other super-soldiers. The Weapon Plus version used on Emil Blonsky require cold storage, is preliminary irradiated with Vita-rays and grant a Regenerative Healing Factor, allowing Blonsky to completely recover and heal his entire broken skeleton within a matter of hours, while Steve Rogers on the other hand , took at least a day or more to heal from small ballistic wounds.

Howard Stark's version did not need Vita-rays but cold storage was still necessary, it made the subject exceedingly aggressive compared to the other versions and physically more powerful than Zola's serum. As one recipient was able to overpower and send the original Winter Soldier flying during a sparring match. Him and the other members of his squad suffered mental side effects, as they were shown to be extremely violent and unruly, killing many HYDRA soldiers and the scientists that handled them. Unable to be controlled, they were eventually placed in suspended animation until they were found and killed by Helmut Zemo.

Wilfried Nagel's version is the most advanced to date and as been perfected to the point of being reduced to a single-dose 10ml vial, no longer require cold storage or appliances such as Vita-Ray Chamber and thus can be self-administered. It grant enhanced physiology without physical change hinting at a more optimized cell density augmentation. Both his and Howard Stark version of the serum cause excruciating pain in their recipients and highlight key personality traits just like Erskine's original formula.


  • Johann Schmidt was the first user of the serum, a prototype version that had yet to be perfected. According to Abraham Erskine, neither he nor the serum was ready, and while Schmidt gained enhanced abilities, the skin of his face had burned off.
  • Steve Rogers was the first and only recipient of the perfected serum. The serum granted him superhuman abilities, cured him of all his medical ailments, and significantly increased his height and physicality.
  • Bucky Barnes was a second successful attempt at a super soldier, injected with serum similar to Rogers' while he was a prisoner of HYDRA in 1943. The serum enabled him to survive the fall from the HYDRA train in 1945, but was not potent enough to prevent the loss of his left arm.