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UÜ àtçç xç. Central England

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1 UÜ àtçç xç Central England

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3 UÜ àtçç xç Central England Page Introduction 5 I East Anglia 9 1 Essex 9 2 Suffolk 16 3 Norfolk 25 4 Cambridgeshire 36 5 Hertfordshire 50 6 Bedfordshire 66 II East Midlands 84 1 Northamptonshire 84 2 Leicestershire and Rutland Lincolnshire Nottinghamshire Derbyshire 184 III West Midlands Warwickshire West Midlands Metropolitan Area Worcestershire Herefordshire Shropshire Staffordshire 261 Final references 272 List of places 275 Joachim Vogt 2010 (Creative Commons) 3

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5 Introduction Britain which definition is actually to be understood by this? It's easy to get confused with the many terms from the Commonwealth to the United Kingdom. Due to the differences between the individual peoples, which they also live consciously, attention should be paid to certain subtleties. The Commonwealth, or more precisely the Commonwealth of Nations, describes a loose confederation of states, which essentially consists of the United Kingdom and its former colonies. Currently, this includes 53 states, the listing of which would take up too much space here, so the most important should suffice: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, India and Pakistan. In addition, numerous smaller states around the world, but also in Europe, the Commonwealth is represented with Cyprus and Malta. The Republic of Ireland, which geographically belongs to the British Isles, does not belong to the Commonwealth, although Ireland was once politically part of the Kingdom. The island of Great Britain is the larger of the two British Isles between the North Sea and the North Atlantic and is made up of the countries England, Wales and Scotland. A Little Great Britain is historically known, even if not by this name, but as the French province of Brittany (see also I / 1.2). The smaller of the British Isles is the Irish Island. In this respect Ireland belongs to the British Isles, but not to Britain, if you take it exactly because Britannia is simply the historical name of England from Roman times. But here, too, Britain was subject to changes and terminology once for the entire island and then again only for the Roman-occupied area along with a few other uses. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland includes, as the name suggests, the island of Great Britain and the northern part of the Irish island, Northern Ireland. Around the main island there are several archipelagos with a total of over a thousand smaller islands, in particular the Shetland and Orkney Islands in the northeast and the Hebrides in the northwest, as well as the Isles of Scilly southwest of England in the Celtic Sea and the Isle of Wright in the English Channel. The Isle of Man in the Irish Sea is not counted as part of the United Kingdom, although it is subject to the British Crown. In England the United Kingdom is commonly referred to simply as Britain; in German Great Britain was simply taken over, although Northern Ireland would actually be excluded here. The English also refer to themselves as British. However, it is advisable to leave the other tribes (Scots, Welsh, Northern Irish) their identity, as some place a high value on not being considered British. However, in this document for the nation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, for the sake of simplicity, the terms United Kingdom, Great Britain and Britain shall have the same meaning. And if the general information only refers to the British or the English, this can be related to the other peoples. Because, as much as they insist on their differences, they are fundamentally alike in their nature and in their customs. Of course, this description of the country cannot claim to be complete, there are simply too many sights and attractions. The use of a travel guide is recommended, especially when describing larger places. It is also locally based on the author's personal preferences, which is why many places and regions are considered less in depth and some are observed much more intensively. Nevertheless, it should be possible for the reader to get an overall good first impression and some travel tips for their stay. 5

6 This has one advantage: Sights are described that would otherwise not be considered in a travel guide and that are off the beaten track. One more note: The population figures are based on the official figures from the Office for National Statistics, the website citypopulation.de and Wikipedia. The Regions of the British Isles Scotland North East Northern Ireland North West Yorkshire and the Humber Ireland Wales West Midlands East Midlands East Anglia London South West South East 6

7 This geographical representation of the regions may suffice for Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. However, England is divided into numerous counties, which should be roughly shown here again, some with old names (e.g. Avon for the area South Gloucestershire, Bristol ...). A more precise classification can be found in the individual chapters, where small counties can also be seen more clearly. 7th

8 And for a more precise orientation when traveling, a map with the larger places: 8

9 I East Anglia East England boasts so many visitor attractions that it can hardly fit all in one visit! Despite the population growth of the last fifty years, the counties are rather rural due to their relative proximity to London and each of them has a very distinctive character and countless treasures to explore. Arrived in eastern England, the senses awaken to new life under the infinitely wide sky that arches over the flat landscape. England, as one imagines it, a perfect mixture of gentle landscapes, ancient cities, impressive mansions and gardens, magical places, villages like out of a picture book, beaches with bird sanctuaries and beach fun like in the old days. The entire region is teeming with ghosts. Countless haunted stories line up in the legends of some places, be it a headless horse or a sunken city. Also bizarre are the fantasy buildings, so-called follies, which one encounters in every shape and size in the eccentric East (e.g. Ickworth House, I / 2.8 or House in the Clouds, I / 2.4). In Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire the landscape is rolling hills with many old towns, villages and Roman ruins. In Cambridgeshire, a little higher up, the majestic rivers flow sluggishly and the influence of the ancient University of Cambridge can be felt. In Norfolk and Suffolk, the swamp marshes shape the country and people, and in Essex, bathing is popular. The people of the different areas celebrate their traditions, which, like the country, are different from elsewhere. 1 Essex Essex is one of the most populous counties with 1.6 million people, despite the lack of really large metropolitan areas. The largest city is Southend-on-Sea with inhabitants, but it is a Unitary Authority. The largest town in Essex is Colchester (), the administrative seat of the county is in Chelmsford (), followed by Basildon () and Harlow (with Sawbridgeworth) before the largest town of the Unitary Authority Thurrock, namely Grays (65,700). The highest point in Essex is Chrishall Common near the village of Langley, close to the border with Hertfordshire, although the height of 147 meters is not particularly pronounced. Away from the cities, the country is rural with beautiful, quiet beaches and old forests. 9

10 Particularly typical in the interior of the country are the wheat fields, which are yellow-gold in color in summer. The area had already been settled in pre-Roman times. The tribe of the Trinovantes, who later achieved relative prosperity through trade with the Ursupators, made a name for themselves here. However, the land of the Trinovantes was one of the first to fall to the Roman Emperor Claudius 43 A.D. when he began his invasion. The name Essex comes from the Anglo-Saxon period of the early Middle Ages and has its roots in the old English East Seaxe, which denoted the Kingdom of East Saxony, founded in 527, which roughly includes the area of ​​present-day Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk and Cambridgeshire. The county in its current form was formed in 1889. The boroughs West Ham and from 1915 also East Ham were geographically part of the county, but at no time were the two boroughs of Greater London politically subject to their decision-making power. Essex has only been in the East Anglia region since 1994, previously it was part of the Southeast. The districts of Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock in the far south of the county have been Unitary Authorities since 1998. In the south, by the way, the industrial sector is also concentrated here, the headquarters of the European Ford works in Brentwood, further north factories are very rare, the production facilities are increasingly being used in the agricultural sector. Essex is best known for its cattle, which were mainly bred for the meat market in London. Due to the enormous size of the cattle, they are popularly known as the "lions of Essex" and, funnily enough, the cattle find their own name again with the resident of the county, which is typically called "Essexkalb" for Essex: cattle in the pasture. Flattering. As far as air traffic connections are concerned, there are London Stansted Airport at Stansted Mountfitched, the main airport in the county in the northwest, and Southend Airport, whose importance as one of the most popular airports is declining and from which only short-haul or business flights take off . There are also a few smaller airfields. The shipping port of Tilbury is one of the three main ports in the whole of Britain, while Harwich has shipping lines to Holland, Cuxhaven and Esbjerg. There is also talk of building Britain's largest container port in Thurrock. 10

11 1.1 Thurrock Although Grays is the largest town in the Thurrock Borough with just one inhabitants, Thurrock is densely populated and has had the status of a Unitary Authority since 1998. All in all, there are around around people in the borough, which can easily be explained by the proximity to the state capital, as the border in the south directly meets Greater London. Incidentally, there is no settlement called Thurrock, but due to the population density, the individual villages in the borough are often simply summarized and called Thurrock as if it were a larger city. In detail, the places Grays, Tilbury, Stanford-le-Hope, South Ockendon and some smaller villages belong to Thurrock. The Thameside Theater, as the name suggests, located on the River Thames, and the Thurrock History Museum are well worth a visit. Tilbury (pop.) Has a seaport and a fortress. Elizabeth I had her main army stationed in the port to defend against the Spanish Armada. Harbor at West Thurrock The Tilbury speech she gave in this context is considered to be her most famous. Even today, the port of Thurrock is of great importance, it is considered the third largest in Britain. One of the first shopping centers in England is the Lakeside Shopping Center, which is located just outside the center at Grays in the direction of West Thurrock. By the way, West Thurrock is not a town in the political sense either, it is a parish. West Thurrocks Church is the site of the funeral in the film Four Weddings and a Funeral. The Queen Elizabeth II Bridge, which spans an arch from Thurrock over the Thames to Dartford in Kent, is architecturally interesting. 1.2 Southend-on-Sea There are undoubtedly nicer seaside towns in England than Southend and it takes a lot of imagination to discover the charm of the place. Even so, this is the closest beach from North London, and it's seven miles long. Southend also has the longest pier in the world with a length of over two kilometers. This route can either be covered on foot or you can sit comfortably in a wagon on the little train that goes along there. Unfortunately, there was a fire at the end of the pier in September 2005, so that construction work prevented access to the last section for a long time. In the meantime, however, access is free again and for a small entrance fee you can explore the pier again to the end. Otherwise, the beach promenade is almost always busy, with carousels and gambling dens, fish-and-chip stalls and cheap souvenir shops lined up next to each other. All possible attractions that belong in a "seaside resort" on the island. Despite these tourist money destroyers but they are simply part of British promenades, it is very nice to walk along the beach and here and there there is also a nice café with a terrace with seating for 11

12 has sea views. Even if a visit to the beach is a must here, it is worthwhile to go further into town. Like Clacton, Southend is known for its parks and gardens, which are especially beautiful in summer. Southend-on-Sea is the largest town in Essex (pop.), But has been a unitary authority since 1998. The city has built a reputation for offering a variety of different events throughout the year. Be it concerts, plays, sporting activities or whatever. Adventure Island am Strand 1.3 Dengie Peninsula The Dengie Peninsula is directly on the North Sea and is bordered by the rivers Crouch (in the south) and Blackwater (in the north). The marshland is characteristic, which has its cause near the North Sea in the east, its storm surges and the tides. So it is understandable that only about around people live here. The largest place is Burnham-on-Crouch. The charm of this town with 7636 people living here is certainly not only due to the coast, there are beautiful beaches elsewhere as well. No, what makes it special here is the elegance that accompanies the beach, and for a reason. Here is the Royal Corinthian Yacht Club, which was shown as at an international fair for modern architecture at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1932. That still rubs off on our time: During the boating season, Burnham-on-Crouch is a true mecca for yachts. The best boats are shown here and the lover is sure to get big eyes. Bradwell-on-Sea lies around 15 km to the north, at the wide mouth of the Blackwater River in the North Sea. Especially those interested in history or architecture should want to visit this place. Because here is St. Peter on the Wall, an ancient Saxon church from the seventh century. Royal Corinthian Yacht Club 12

13 1.4 Epping Forest The Epping Forest rises off the coast in the interior of Essex. The forest now extends from Woodford and Wanstead to Epping. It is 18 km long but nowhere wider than 4 km and is cut through by innumerable roads and several motorways (M11, M25) and expressways. It is a very old forest in which pretty cottages and “timber-framed” farms, that is, half-timbered houses, can be seen again and again. Autumn mood in the Epping Forest Queen Elizabeth's Hunting Lodge In clearings you can hear the screeching of the wooden axes again and again when the blades of the windmills are driven by a breeze. In the area of ​​the Epping Forest there are some tranquil country houses with beautiful gardens. The hunting lodge of Queen Elizabeth near Chingford, which was built in 1543 at the behest of Henry VIII, is particularly worth seeing. The kitchen is still in Tudor style and from the upper floors you have an intoxicating view of the whole forest. 1.5 Chelmsford Chelmsford, a large town with inhabitants, is the administrative seat of the county of Essex. If Chelmsford is otherwise not as famous as some other places, the city can certainly be considered a worth living in. And it can boast of an outstanding event in the history of the development of the modern world, because it was here that Guglielmo Marconi built the first factory to manufacture radios in 1898. There are quite a few who see the birth of modern technology in this event, without which radio, television or computers would not exist today. 13th

14 The annual V-Festival is very popular. It is a music festival in Hylands Park that lets small and large rock greats grab the strings. But other music concerts also find a home in Hylands Park. Colchester radio made by Marconi's factory. Coming to Colchester is the largest city in Essex after the Unitary Authority of Southend-on-Sea. But of course that's not what makes this city so special. Much more important is their historical significance. It is Britain's oldest documented city, which was recorded by the Romans, more precisely by Pliny, in 77 A.D. as Camulodunum. At that time the city was already well developed and even had the right to mint, so it was able to mint money itself. History is omnipresent in Colchester. From the Balkerne Gate, a former Roman gate to the west, ruins still stand as evidence of this time.There are also some fragments of walls left in the many parks around the Norman castle. The fortress was mainly built from the brick remains of the Roman city and therefore has its reddish color. Incidentally, it houses an excellent local history museum with many exhibits from the time of the Roman occupation. The exhibits can also be touched and so some can feel like a centurion with a Roman helmet or an old short sword and other objects from this era. As is usually the case in Britain, the main street is a shopping street, where, in addition to the large chains, there are also many small alternative shops. In the center, the old Dutch quarter, Dutch Quarter, is known, which was built by Flemish refugees from Flanders at the end of the 16th century. The appearance of the quarter is characterized by the old buildings and beautiful half-timbered houses. Just outside is the Colchester Zoo, always worth a trip for young and old. Giraffes, wet horns, flamingos, elephants, the zoo is famous for its biodiversity. Colchester is also the seat of the University of Essex in Wivenhoe Park. In the Dutch Quarter 14

15 1.7 Clacton-on-Sea The beach is the focus of a visit to Clacton, a town with residents. Like the other "Sunshine Coast Resorts", the focus on the needs of families is the basis for the success of this seaside resort. This has a long tradition and is readily accepted by adults and children alike. Clacton-on-Sea is also known for its gardens and parks, which enjoy the richest green and bright colors, depending on the season. Clacton also has a haunted story to offer. A soldier was killed in the ballroom of the Butlins barracks, which are no longer there. Its spirit is said to still be in the area of ​​the former barracks area near the Martello tower. Martello Tower, where the ghost of a killed soldier is supposed to pass 1.8 District Uttlesford The small market town of Saffron Walden (pop.) Is the administrative seat of the district of Uttlesford in the north-west of County Essex and is 41 km north-north-west of Chelmsford and 15 miles south of Cambridge. Saffron Walden is shaped from medieval times, although it already existed as a small settlement during the time of the Roman occupation. The Church of St. Mary the Virgin dates from the 15th century. Only a few ruins remain of the twelfth century castle, as the stones were gradually used to build newer houses after the Middle Ages. The ancient maze of lawns is interesting, the turf forms a labyrinth drawing about thirty meters in diameter. The first written mention of this labyrinth comes from there is also a beautiful country estate, namely in the west of Saffron Walden: Audley End House with Audley Park in front. Here is also the Audley End miniature train, very popular with children. Audley End House 15

16 The Labyrith The winning couple of the Flitch Trials 2008 In Great Dunmow, almost exactly halfway from Chelmsford to Saffron Walden, every four years a powder-wiged judge looks for a married couple at the Flitch Trials according to the old tradition Day no more arguments with each other. This always involves couples who have to convince six local virgins and six local bachelors that they haven't said a bad word to each other in the past 366 days. The couple who win will receive a smoked bacon side (Flitch) and will be accompanied in a large parade down the main street. 2 Suffolk Suffolk has around 55,000 inhabitants, an above-average proportion of whom are of retirement age. The proportion of residents between 15 and 29, on the other hand, is comparatively low, which is attributed to the lack of large cities and thus also higher educational institutions. The only two cities with over residents are Lowestoft (69 800) and Ipswich (also the administrative seat of Suffolk). Just like Norfolk, parts of Suffolk are only just above sea level, which is why the Norfolk Broads, a wetland of rivers, lakes and swamps, also extend over the northern part of Suffolk. The area of ​​the Suffolk Coast and Heaths is an Area of ​​Outstanding Natural Beauty and extends over forest, arable and heathland, several estuaries as well as beaches and rocks for a total of around one hundred kilometers on the coast. Many of the beautiful coastal towns are in the area, as are three nature reserves and three long-distance hiking trails. Today's Suffolk emerged from the southern part of the Kingdom of East Anglia, which the Anglo-Saxons founded in the fifth century. The division into Norfolk and Suffolk probably took place in the eleventh century, and Suffolk's borders have changed little since then, apart from the loss of land on the coast caused by exposure to the elements. From 1888 to 1972, however, there were two separate administrative units, East Suffolk and West Suffolk, which were only reunited into one county under the Local Government Act. In the Middle Ages, the citizens of Suffolk achieved increasing prosperity through the growing and abundant wool trade, so that the county was even considered the richest area in England. 16

17 Today Suffolk is still agricultural, but very different in terms of land use. Grain predominates, but grazing land is also to be found. The nickname of the people from Suffolk is "suffolk Fair-Maids" or "Silly Suffolk", which is due to the often invoked, legendary beauty of the local women in the Middle Ages History of Christianity and the pretty churches associated with it. 2.1 Ipswich Ipswich (inh.) Has not been a gray mouse for a long time; the upswing and investment of the recent past have ensured that. There is hardly a town in the area that has so many old houses from almost every era of architecture, but there are hardly any streets and alleys from medieval times. For some reason it is not so noticeable when a 16th century building stands next to an 18th century Georgian house, the different architectural styles somehow fit together. Perhaps precisely because everything, and indeed everything, is a little "mixed up". The architecture reflects it: Ipswich looks back on a long and interesting history. The place has been inhabited for thousands of years, as is evident from finds from the Stone and Iron Ages, but the Romans and Saxons also left their traces. In the Middle Ages, Ipswich had an important port that is still in operation today. At that time, the port was an important transshipment point for the respective cargo, but today the rich and affluent use it to moor their yachts there. Ten years ago, the area was really run down, but investments and renovations have turned it into a hip and luxurious residential area where you can also dine well. The most interesting building is probably the old Customs House. It was built in the middle of the 19th century in a neoclassical style. From here you are in the center of the city after a short five-minute walk. There are also numerous old houses here, such as the Ancient House. Its extravagant external appearance was created in the 17th century. It is worthwhile to linger a moment longer while looking at the fine stucco. A shop has now been set up inside, which means you can enter the Ancient House every day. Ancient House with the motto of the British monarchs "God and my rights" (15th century) 17

18 and does not have to take part in a tour or the like. Also worth seeing is St. Stephens Church, which, by the way, houses the tourist information office. City Hall, an impressive town hall characterized by Italian architecture, is located on Cornhill market square. Another highlight of a visit to Ipswich is the huge park area of ​​the Christchurch Mansion. The mansion is a magnificently renovated Tudor-era building with exhibits of antique furniture and paintings from English painting legends such as Gainsborough and Constable. Top left: Christchurch Mansion Left: Old laundry lack “The Housewife's Darling”, exhibited in the Christchurch Mansion Let me now take a brief look at the present day: Ipswich will probably become a Unitary Authority around 2010 with the involvement of the surrounding area. And there was another criminal case of hideous proportions, which certainly reminds one of Jack the Ripper: Since the end of November 2006, five women's corpses have been discovered in Ipswich who have been identified as drug addicts prostitutes. Since all were found dead within ten days within a radius of 15 km, the police suspected a series of murders. There was a worldwide sensational manhunt by the British police authorities, which resulted in Steven Wright being sentenced to life imprisonment. 2.2 Woodbridge Woodbridge is a small town (7,480 inhabitants) eight kilometers east-northeast of Ipswich. Woodbridge is first mentioned in the middle of the tenth century when it was occupied by the then Bishop of Winchester, Aethelwold. He placed it under the monastery in Ely in 970. Woodbridge itself had no monastery building of its own until 1193 until Ernald Rufus founded one in 1193. Ships, ropes and sails have been made in Woodbridge since the Middle Ages. Both Edward III. and Francis Drake, in the Elizabethan era, had ships under their command that were built here. 18th

19 The town has a very rare attraction: a tide mill. There are just four of them in Britain, and one of the first was in operation as early as 1170. It initially belonged to the monastery brothers, from 1536 it was in royal possession. Henry VIII bequeathed it to his daughter Elizabeth I and she handed the mill over to Thomas Seckford in 1564, Seckford founded the Woodbridge School and the Seckford Almshouse. There are also two windmills, Buttrum s Mill and Tricker s Mill. The County Hall on Market Hill has a museum dedicated to the Suffolk Punch, a breed of hard-working horses. The tide mill From the east bank of the Deben some grassy elevations overlook the town. This group of low hills is called Sutton Hoo and is famous for one of the earliest English kings, Rædwald, who is believed to have excavated an Anglo-Saxon treasure here. This incident is often referred to as the "first page of English historiography". Nearby, 4 miles east of Woodbridge, is the Rendlesham Forest. This is where the so-called Rendlesham Forest Incident occurred in 1980, when inexplicable lights were seen in the sky near RAF Woodbridge, a US air force base. They were immediately declared by some as UFOs that had landed in the forest. There are no limits to the imagination regarding extraterrestrial life and so the area is seen as the "British Roswell". 2.3 Framlingham Castle The history goes back a long way The ruins of Framlingham Castle of Framlingham Castle (15 km north of Woodbridge), which was founded in the seventh century by Rædwald, a mighty king of the east anglers. Unfortunately, nothing can be seen of this castle. The structure, the remains of which can still be seen today, was only erected between 1190 and 1210. A special architectural feature is the curtain wall that protects the interior of the castle. It is one of the first of its kind in Western Europe. Today the ruin is managed by the English Heritage and is open to visitors all year round. 19th

20 2.4 Aldeburgh Aldeburgh is a coastal town with 2793 inhabitants, where the river Alde passes. It is a frequent weekend destination, known for its beautiful beach and fishermen's huts. You can buy fresh fish here every day. Also worth seeing is the old Moot Hall, where the city council still meets today. A Martello tower (see IV / 1.7) from Napoleonic times is in the south and the marina with its majestic boats can be seen in Slaughden. Two kilometers north of Aldeburgh is the House in the Clouds, a former water tower and today's holiday home. The place is particularly well known because of its most famous inhabitant. The composer Benjamin Britten, who lived in Aldeburgh, founded the Aldeburgh Festival of the Arts in 1948, which has its home in the next-door rush at the Aldeburgh Festival, the Snape Maltings. 2.5 Dunwich On the cliffs of Dunwich (17 km north of Aldeburgh and 45 km south of Great Yarmouth) in Suffolk you have a breathtaking view over the water surface of the North Sea, at least in good weather. And at times you can still hear the church bells of the once prosperous city. But now nothing can be seen of her, the sea has taken her, she has sunk in the water of the North Sea. 2.6 Lavenham One could compare Lavenham (30 km west-northwest of Ipswich, 16 km south of Bury St. Edmunds and 10 km north-northeast of Sudbury) with Rothenburg ob der Tauber in Germany. In any case, the historic center of the small town (1750 inh.) With its many half-timbered houses is one of the most popular tourist destinations in England. It is considered by many to be the best medieval art. Corpus Christi Guild Hall 20

21 held place in Britain. Once a thriving center of the wool industry, Lavenham paid higher taxes than many famous towns in the 16th century. Most of the buildings have been preserved from this period of bloom. Here you can find whole streets with half-timbered houses, due to the age one is more crooked than the other. The highlight of a visit to Lavenham is a stroll through the market square with the 16th century Corpus Christi Guildhall. It was originally built as the Alte Wollhalle guild house, but was later also used as a prison and poor house. There is now an interesting exhibition to look at with information on the history of the city and its wool industry. Next to the Guildhall is the Little Hall, in which old furniture and art exhibits can be viewed. The church of St. Peter and Paul is also worth seeing, the construction of which was financed at the time by the merchants of Lavenhams, who displayed their wealth. 2.7 Sudbury This market town (inh.) Is 30 km from Ipswich and is primarily known to art lovers. But first to its story. In the 14th century in particular, Sudbury was part of royal politics, as it was the first city in which King Edward III. Flemish refugees from Flanders settled here. He allowed them to weave wool and make silk, and the craft persisted here for centuries. Thanks to the advancement of the wool trade, Sudbury, as the appropriate center of this area, became prosperous and many large houses and churches were built during this period. The Woolsack in the House of Lords was originally filled with wool from Sudbury it is the seat of the Lord Chancellor (since 2006 the Lord Speaker), a large cushion covered with red fabric without arm or backrest. The pillow is supposed to emphasize the great importance of the wool industry for the country. During the eighteenth century Sudbury became particularly famous for its local artists. In addition to J. M. W. Turner (London), the statue of John Con-Gainsborough on the market square in front of St. Peter 21 is particularly important

22 stable () as one of the most important painters of the English Romantic period. His work lives from the tension between closer observation of nature and neglecting the line in favor of the color effect, which is how his landscape paintings became famous. And here you have to name the Dedham Vale, Constable's home, a valley 16 km southwest of Ipswich and 19 km southeast of Sudbury, through which the River Stour runs. He painted his home valley in 1828 and Dedham Vale is believed to be his most famous painting. Sudbury is even more clearly connected to the painter Thomas Gainsborough (), because Sudbury is his birthplace and home, where he spent his youth and school years. He moved to Ipswich with his family. Gainsborough is also an early representative of English Romanticism and so his work is primarily characterized by portraits and landscape paintings. His birthplace, now Gainsborough House, is now a museum dedicated to his life and work. It houses many valuable paintings and some exhibits from the family property. 2.8 Clare Castle In the small town of Clare (1975, 14 km west-north-west of Sudbury) are the remains of a castle from the 13th century, Clare Castle, which is surrounded by a beautiful park. The original castle was built after the conquest by the Normans under William the Conqueror by Richard de Clare, to whom the land had been awarded by William. In the 15th century, Clare Castle became the property of the Crown, which led to the rapid deterioration of the complex. The parish church of Clare, St. Peter and Paul is one of the largest and most beautiful in East Anglia. The church was built in the 15th and early 16th centuries. The remains of Clare Castle 2.9 Bury St. Edmunds The town of Bury St. Edmunds, also known simply as Bury for short, is the capital of the district of St. Edmundsbury and the spiritual center of East Anglia. People live in the city. It is a truly delightful small town with many houses that date from the time of King Edward VII (baptized Albert Edward, son of Victoria I) and give the place a certain noble grandeur. 22nd

23 The most famous building in the city, however, is the ruin of the Benedictine Abbey of St. Edmund, which was founded at the beginning of the eleventh century, in the city center. A large garden is laid out around it. The abbey can be found next to flower beds and shrubbery. The last Anglo-Saxon King Edmund is buried in it (killed by Ivar Ragnarsson in 869) and so it developed into an important place of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages. Bury St. Edmunds is important for the history of the Magna Carta: English barons met in the abbey church in 1214 and swore an oath to force King John Ohneland to grant the nobility basic freedoms (see I / 1.2). The ruins of St. Edmundsburry Cathedral in the gardens. The city grew around the abbey and developed into a fabric manufacturing city in the 14th century. The abbey itself was largely destroyed by the dissolution of the monastery in the 16th century. Nevertheless, despite its rural location, the place continued to develop into a prosperous and prosperous city in the 17th and 18th centuries. This development was only to change with the start of the industrial revolution, Bury could not compete with the burgeoning steel industry and then developed into a market town. St Edmundsbury Cathedral was built next to the abbey in 1913. In the 1960s the church building was extended or renewed at the eastern end and a new tower (Millennium Tower) was built by 2004. The construction of the church was completed on July 22, 2005 with a solemn service, which was also attended by the British heir apparent, Charles and Camilla. Bury St. Edmunds now owns the only 21st century cathedral in Great Britain. Furthermore, the city has a small theater from the Regency period to offer as a sight. Every year in May, Bury St. Edmunds holds a festival, which is accompanied by concerts, games and dance and is concluded with fireworks. The place is also known for the Greene King Brewery, which originally brewed beer for the British who were expatriated to India. And finally there is also an art gallery with exhibits of contemporary art. 23

24 A little further out there is a technical facility in the agricultural industry, which is one of the reasons why Bury is best known to most English people. It is a huge sugar factory that refines the sugar beets from the area. It is one of the largest of its kind in England and the sugar is sold under the name Silver Spoon. Ickworth House is two kilometers southwest of Bury St. Edmunds. It is an interesting building on a circular floor plan, a so-called rotunda Newmarket If you come to Newmarket from the north, you will be told shortly before the place what pastime the small town (pop.) Is indulging in. Here is a large statue of a horse held by a rider. Newmarket is the city of horse racing par excellence in England. And pastime is certainly not the right word, the ungulates find absolute professionalism here. The Newmarket is probably owed to King Charles II, who lived out his passion for horse racing in Newmarket and thus laid the foundation for further development. This equestrian center is 23 km west of Bury St. Edmunds and 28 km east of Cambridge, and nowhere else in the country is it used as a training ground. Many associations have their headquarters here, including the National Stud, of course. The National Stud is, so to speak, the national horse breeding company and next to it is a breeding stable opened by Queen Elizabeth II. But these are just two examples out of many. It is also home to the national horse racing museum and the seat of the jockey club founded in 1750, so it is no wonder that many successful jockeys have settled here and in the surrounding area. Angry tongues could claim that there are disproportionately many short men on the streets of Newmarket. Very important is Tattersall's bloodstock auctioneers, where the warm-blooded animals are presented and often change hands for a lot, a lot of money. The races now take place in the districts of Higham and Ampton. In Newmarket nine of the total of 32 horse races Tattersall s bloodstock auctioneers of the highest classification (Group I) are held, exactly as many as in Ascot (see II / 5.7). 24

25 3 Norfolk The population of Norfolk is 5,371 km², making it one of the most sparsely populated areas in England. And 38% of them live in the three metropolitan areas of Norfolk, in and around Norwich, Great Yarmouth and King s Lynn. So it is hardly surprising that agriculture and tourism are two of the most important industries in Norfolk. The county town of the county in the east of southern England is Norwich, the only city with city status. The dialect is known as Broad Norwich, which uses a somewhat idiosyncratic grammar and has been preserved despite gradual softening, especially in the country. Much of Norfolk is just above sea level, which has contributed to the creation of a large wetland called the Norfolk Broads. This is an area of ​​rivers and lakes right on the coast of the North Sea, which form a total of around 200 km of navigable waterways and extensive moorland. The Broads have been a popular vacation spot for boaters and anglers since the early twentieth century. However, Norfolk is also susceptible to storm surges from the North Sea and floods occur frequently. Significant damage was last caused by the great flood in 1953. The area of ​​what is now Norfolk has probably been settled since the Neolithic Age. The defining landscape of the Norfolk: the moor from the 1st century BC. The Celtic tribe of the Iceni lived here until the 1st century AD. They defended themselves against the invasion of the Romans, but were ultimately defeated by them. Agriculture was already practiced during the Roman rule and harbors were built along the coast. Around the 5th century the anglers controlled the area from which both East Anglia and England owes its name and later divided into "north folk" and "south folk", from which the present-day names Norfolk and Suffolk emerged. The area of ​​Norfolk first became the Kingdom of East Anglia, after Mercia and Wessex merged. In the ninth century, Norfolk was the target of Viking attacks, which eventually included King Edmund the Martyr (see IV / 2.8). In the following years, parts of the wetlands could be converted into arable fields, so that more people moved here and gradually formed settlements and larger villages. After the Norman Conquest in 1066 A.D., the area became one of the most densely populated in the British Isles, and in the 16th century Norwich was the second largest city in England. There was little industry in Norfolk during the Industrial Revolution, and it was only later that the county was connected to the railroad network. Agriculture intensified as a result of the Second World War; Above all, cereals and rapeseed were and are still cultivated to this day. In the 20th century Norfolk came to aeronautical importance. During the First World War, the first airfields were built and, especially during the Second World War, there were many base bases of the Royal Air Force and also the US air force. The road network is in stark contrast to this: Norfolk is one of the few counties without a motorway. Perhaps a word about the difference between bog and swamp: Both types are caused by excessive moisture in the soil due to the drying out of a lake or by flooding

26 mungen, alluvial land is also called marshland. In the bog, undecomposed parts of the plant sink down and form a peat bottom on the bottom, which gradually pushes upwards. If the peat is 30 cm thick, it is called a bog. The swamp, on the other hand, occasionally dries out completely, which means that the plant parts can decompose completely. There is no peat formation here. By the way: When you walk on the moor, it is like walking on cotton wool, the ground always seems to give way and sometimes the moisture is so dominant that you find yourself in a small pond or water hole. Due to the buoyancy, however, it is not possible to go under in the bog or swamp. 3.1 The Brecks The south of the county presents a slightly different picture than one usually sees Norfolk with its marshland. The Brecks or Breckland, a mixture of wooded areas and heathland. In contrast to the ever-humid swamps, it is one of the driest areas of England. Here are the market towns of Thetford, Attleborough, Watton, Swaffham and Dereham, and picturesque villages like East Harling with neat churches and cricket fields complete the idyllic picture. Many historical sites can be explored in the Brecks, the oldest being Grime s Grave. The name suggests a grave, but it is a flint pit or mine that dates back to the Breckland-Wiese v. Chr. Was in operation. Somewhat newer attractions Bressingham Steam Museum await you in Bressingham, for example, where exquisite gardens and a steam museum can be visited. In the market town of Thetford is the Thetford Forest, one of the largest pine forests in the country. The forest was created after the First World War to compensate for the loss of many oaks and other slow-growing trees. Today Thetford Forest is a popular destination; The forest offers almost optimal conditions, especially for mountain bikers. 26

27 3.2 Norwich The charm of Norwich is legendary and does not stay hidden for long. It can be found especially in the medieval streets, which are still in excellent condition in this town. Norwich is the largest town in Norfolk in terms of population, and is far ahead of Great Yarmouth (59,100). The city administration applied for the status of a unitary authority in 2007, but no decision has yet been taken. Norwich's heyday lasted for centuries and was one of the most important Norman cities. The proximity to the continent helped many merchants to do well and, above all, clothing production in the 17th century brought Norwich prosperity. However, with the industrial revolution this changed rapidly and the area became impoverished. Today a stroke of luck, as large parts of the city have remained almost unchanged since the Middle Ages. There are numerous old buildings, from merchants' houses to churches. When talking about old buildings in Norwich, one thing should never be missing: the breathtaking cathedral, whose bell tower is the second tallest in the whole kingdom. Furthermore, the church of St. Peter Hungate, for the construction of which the local flint was mostly used, and the monastery with its cloisters and almost a thousand ornate keystones can be admired. Norwich also has a second cathedral, namely a Roman Catholic. It already exudes something powerful and is not inferior to its Anglican counterpart in its grandeur. A quick turn to the education system: A college can also be found in Norwich. Norwich Castle rises on a hill in the city. Today it houses a museum about the industrial revolution, a natural history museum, an art gallery and a few more exhibitions. Particularly noteworthy are the art works of the Norwich School. This group was founded in 1803 and its artists mainly painted landscapes in keeping with the spirit of the English Romantic period. The amazing thing about these works is that they were hobby painters, each of whom went about their normal work. Therefore, on the left: Anglican Cathedral, on the right: Catholic Cathedral 27

28 the paintings are simply amazing in their passion and flawless purity. Unfortunately, the renovations to the castle are a bit too obvious, so that the impression of a centuries-old building may seem almost artificial. But it still has its charm. Next to the castle is a large shopping center, which luckily has paid a lot of attention to the subtle impression. It blends in well with the cityscape and is not immediately noticeable. Near the Anglican Cathedral is an alley that brings the Middle Ages back to life like no other in Norwich. In Elm Hill, there are numerous half-timbered houses crooked and humped along the lane, just magical. Elm Hill in the evening There is always something going on in the market square, a stroll is simply an experience. Perhaps you will find a pair of trousers or a sweater or you might be toying with the colored vegetables or fresh fish. Next to the market square is the church of St. Peter Mancroft and behind it the forum, where the tourist information is located. The town hall is also nearby, a building from the 1930s that is somewhat reminiscent of Oslo's town hall in its appearance. above: Markt and City Hall left: Royal Arcade It is simply wonderful to stroll through the Royal Arcade and browse the shops there. The Art Nouveau passage was built in 1899 and is an experience in itself. It has been extensively restored and reflects the turn of the century. The best way to take a good break is to have a drink in one of the numerous pubs in Norwich. A visit should definitely be 28

29 Adam and Eve are said to be near the cathedral. The building was built as a brewery in 1247 and has since leaned in all directions. A ghost story makes the pub a little more interesting. Many a dead monk who is buried in the cemetery next to the monastery is said to have a pint at the Adam and Eve at midnight. 3.3 Norfolk Broads A peaceful corner of the world with shallow rivers ideal for boating. Probably Norfolk's best-known natural landscape, the Broads extend over an area that begins on the western city limits of Great Yarmouth and ends east of Norwich, and extends about 10 km north of Great Yarmouth to 20 km south of it. Although there are some remains of peat extraction, the alluvial land has remained largely unaffected in its naturalness. The reason for this is certainly also the regular visitation by storm surges from the North Sea. No less than 41 lakes can be found in these marshes. All of them are quite shallow and, apart from the North Sea storms, are fed by six rivers. The Broads are permanently damp and the numerous opportunities for boating, beautiful moorland and wildlife, especially the species-rich bird life, attract two million visitors annually. There are also plenty of windmills to be seen in the Broads, the finest examples can be found at Horsey Mere, the Berney Arms and Thurne Dyke. The beautiful thatched roofs are also a striking landmark of the area. Sutton Fen in the Broads (Sutton Low Moor) The moor is downright inviting for scary stories. A ghostly skater and a ghost boat are up to mischief in the Norfolk Broads. But these are only the two most famous of countless haunted legends and sagas. Windmill on the water 29

30 3.4 Great Yarmouth Great Yarmouth is the easternmost town in the county of Norfolk and lies on the North Sea coast. Therefore, the city and its around residents and the good people in the surrounding area are repeatedly plagued by floods, but this does not seem to affect them to move away. You can't blame them because Great Yarmouth really has a lot to offer. The natural wonders of the Norfolk Broads are right on the western outskirts and at the same time the eastern outskirts offer a completely different picture with the sea beach and the associated typical properties from pier, play and fun to swimming and fishing. Great Yarmouth was founded near the Roman garrison Gariannonum and the remains of two Roman castles can be found in the immediate vicinity: Garrianonum (Burgh Castle) with a well-preserved enclosure wall and Caister-on-Sea, of which only the foundation walls can be seen. The city was heavily fortified under Elizabeth I. The city is also the administrative seat of the borough of the same name. Yarmouth used to be an important center of the herring fishery and based on this its former prosperity. The hints of the herring fishing boat on the south quay, which are visible everywhere, can often be seen in pubs, shops or signs and the specialties red herring and Yarmouth Bloater, a cold smoked herring, are well known. The fishing is still an important mainstay of the city but today the inhabitants live mainly from the oil industry in the North Sea. In addition, the city has been a popular seaside resort since 1760 with a good sandy beach, two piers (Wellington and Britannia, the latter opened as a wooden structure in 1858) and a long amusement promenade, Marine Parade, a so-called Golden Mile with amusement arcades, rides and a Sea Life Center and everything else that goes with it. Those who do not want to tackle the Marine Parade on foot can also take a street train or horse-drawn carriage from one end to the other. At night, this amusement mile, the giant amusement arcade »The Mint«, is filled with numerous colorful lights

31 lit up, the forty-meter-high Yarmouth Eye Ferris wheel offers a sensational view of the sea on one side and of the city and the Norfolk Broads behind on the other, Great Yarmouth was selected as the location for one of nine licensed British major casinos, which also to the »supercasino« in Manchester. Two miles east of the beach is the Scroby Sands offshore wind turbine, which was completed in 2005. Thirty turbines with a rotor length of forty meters have a maximum output of sixty megawatts and supply up to 1,000 households. The establishment of a regular ferry connection to the Dutch IJmuiden (province of Noord-Holland) is planned for the future, from which the city and region expect positive economic effects on the hinterland as well. From a historical point of view, the Tollhouse dungeons and the city wall are particularly worth seeing. There is also the merchant's house here, in which the fate of Charles I was supposedly decided (see I / 1.3). 3.5 Blicking Hall Blicking Hall is a large mansion in the village of Blicking, north of Aylsham, eight miles south of Cromer and 12 miles north of Norwich, and is managed by the National Trust. It was Anne Boleyn's childhood home and was built around that time. Without a doubt a great house with delightful interiors with lovely gardens and parks. Anne Boleyn, daughter of Lord Rochford and niece of the Duke of Norfolk, was the second wife of Henry VIII. Because of her, Henry separated from Catherine of Aragon and after Pope Clement VII did not want to divorce the marriage, the English crown renounced the Roman one Catholic Church and Heinrich founded the Anglican Church, the head of which he appointed himself in the Act of Supremacy, given by God. Anne Boleyn could not give birth to a male heir to Heinrich Long Gallery VIII, which is why she finally lost her head in the literal sense, because Heinrich had her beheaded on May 19, 1536. Legend has it that every year since then, on the night of the anniversary of her death, Anne Boleyn has returned as a ghost to Blicking Hall in a carriage whose driver and horse are headless. The carriage comes over the driveway and dissolves shortly before reaching the building. A nice horror story, but even the last owner of Blicking Halls, Lady Lothian, is said to have believed in the ghost and never looked out the window on the night of May 19th. On the other hand, it is also said that the ghost story goes back to smugglers who had a carriage pulled by a white horse with a black head in order to simulate a headlessness. They are said to have hoped to cause enough horror to be able to bring their contraband to safety without harm. 31

32 3.6 Cromer Like many other beautiful coastal towns in Norfolk, Cromer (7749 inhabitants) is located on the northern coast of the county towards the North Sea, as is Sheringham or Wells-next-the-Sea. Cromer was once a popular destination. Even greats like Oscar Wilde were deeply impressed by the charm of the town. Today there is not much left of the former size, only the Hotel de Paris still reminds of better times with its name and the luxury of its facade. And yet Cromer has lost none of its charm. The amusement attractions romp about here like a jostling crowd and the visitor is not asked to enter by casinos either. It is simply a small, idyllic place by the sea. There is of course a pier. It is not as long as its kind in Brighton or Southend, but it is wonderful to stroll on. The beach is even more suitable, arguably the reason why many visitors to northern Norfolk are here. One culinary specialty is highly recommended: the Cromer crabs. Not far from Cromer, a little further inland, is Felbrigg Hall, a beautiful 17th century mansion run by the National Trust. The gardens and parks are worth seeing and the house is known for its unique library. Allegedly Arthur Conan Doyle developed his idea for the action The Hound of Baskerville around Sherlock Holmes here in Cromer. He was vacationing here and during his stay heard the legend of the mysterious dog Black Shuck, told here. View over Cromer to the North Sea 3.7 Sheringham Similar to Cromer, the insignificantly smaller Sheringham (7143 inhabitants) is a popular destination. The town is also on the north coast of Norfolk to the North Sea and not far west of Cromer. What quickly catches the visitor's eye here in Sheringham are the decorations on the houses made of rounded flint stones that can be found here on the beach. Years of erosion by the sea have shaped them into this shape and it is a noticeable feature of Sheringham. But the tides hit the city's coastal strip particularly hard, and so concrete barriers had to be planted there. Certainly they disturb the image of the beach, but they have simply become necessary and prevent further victims to the sea. The North Norfolk Railway is well worth a visit, where you have the opportunity to see and drive a real old steam locomotive. There is also Sheringham Park. Azaleas and rhododendrons bloom here in full bloom, especially in May and June. Sheringham is also an ideal base for exploring Blakeney Point, north of the village of Blakeney, eight miles west of Sheringham. This is a headland that protrudes into the North Sea and where a true natural spectacle is offered

33 is coming. Numerous seals lie on the sandbanks here and an abundance of sea birds can be observed. As part of the Blakeney National Nature Reserve and the Norfolk Coast Area of ​​Outstanding Natural Beauty, it is managed by the National Trust. Seals at Blakeney Point 3.8 Wells-next-the-Sea Wells-next-the-Sea is the closest in the group of places on the northern coast of Norfolk to the North Sea. 2451 inhabitants live here. Wells was an important port city in the Middle Ages, but the silting up meant that the open sea is already about two kilometers away from the place. Since the beach is quite far from Wells, a small train was installed with which one can comfortably cover the distance. A small port is still in operation. There are no great sights to be found here, but it is a delightful mini-town from which one can explore the Norfolk coast very well. The very clean sandy beach is ideal for walking or swimming. The typical beach huts can also be found here, some of which are traded higher in England than small houses. Just three miles from Wells is Holkham Hall, a magnificent 18th century mansion. The building is made of sandstone which gives a lot of warmth to the whole complex. Inside are magnificent state rooms and a remarkable collection of paintings by Rubens, Gainsborough and Van Dyck. The visit is to be supplemented with a walk through the park, the landscape is simply fantastic. Wells-next-the-Sea Harbor 33

34 3.9 Burnham Market With a population of 948, this small market town is the largest of a total of seven Burnham villages and is ten kilometers west of Wells. Here you can find both the rough charm of the coast on the nearby North Sea and the rural paint in the surrounding area. Burnham is a popular weekend destination and is also known as "chelsea-on-sea". The elongated village meadow where the market is held, the elegant houses from the 18th century and the pretty little flint cottages give this village that certain something. The neighboring village of Burnham Thorpe was the birthplace of the great British naval hero Lord Nelson in 1758 (see II / 3.1). Flea market on the village meadow 3.10 King s Lynn King s Lynn is located near the border with Cambridgeshire on the Great Ouse, just before its confluence with the so-called The Wash of the North Sea. The fens (fens), an area at sea level that was drained in the Middle Ages, begin in the immediate vicinity. In 2001 the population was The city is the administrative seat of the district of King s Lynn and West Norfolk. Like many cities on the English North Sea coast, King s Lynn was not directly on the sea, but through the Great Ouse it was an important port for transport and fishing. The city was the location of a trading post for the Hanseatic League and as such was temporarily under the control of the Stalhof office in London. Numerous department stores from the late 17th century bear witness to this time. Customs House 34

35 It is believed that a ship loaded with grain brought the plague from here to Bergen in 1349. Because King Edward III. had allowed the citizens to trade in grain with Norway in 1344 on the condition that no enemies were supplied and that they would bring a receipt from the Norwegian city that the delivery had taken place. On May 8, 1349 he allowed the citizens Thomas and William de Melchebourn to ship 1000 quarters (equivalent to 12.7 t) of grain to Norway. As far as seafaring is concerned, King's Lynn has lost a lot of its importance today. Most recently, the city was the import port for Škoda cars. Today, Campbell s Soup is an important and well-known industrial company. With an annual capacity of tonnes, it also has the largest paper machine for newsprint in Europe, which is operated by the Palm Group and serves the British market. Nearby is the Rising Keep, a well-preserved Norman fortress. And twelve kilometers northeast of King s Lynn is Sandringham House in Sandringham, a residence of the Queen, which is therefore a year-round tourist attraction. And then there is a particularly peculiar custom. In the village of Grimston (1952 inh .; or Congham, 227 inh.) 10 km to the east, sport is very important, and that with a world championship. But it is not the people who strive for top performance, but snails. That's right, the snail race world championship will be held here in mid-July and this event will hardly attract worldwide media interest. The snails are stuck their start number on the houses and then they are placed in the middle of a circle. Whichever snail arrives at the edge of the circle first wins. There are several preliminary rounds and finally the snail that wins the final can call itself the world's fastest snail. World Snail Racing Championship in Grimston 35

36 4 Cambridgeshire Cambridgeshire is probably best known for the university in the county town of Cambridge. Much of the county is extremely low, with England's deepest point at Holme Fen being 2.75 meters below sea level. The highest point can be found in the village of Great Chishill and is 146 meters above sea level. The county can be easily divided into two parts. The north is largely a fen area and the south has limestone hills. Cambridgeshire is divided into six districts: Cambridge, South Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Fenland, East Cambridgeshire and Peterborough, the latter being a separate administrative district. The largest cities are Peterborough (in the Soke, only the city) and Cambridge (with Milton, without), otherwise no cities have at least residents. Cambridgeshire is known as one of the first permanently settled areas in Britain, including Neolithic sites from the Neolithic Age, around 4500 to 5000 BC. witness at Fengate and Balbridie. A lot of archaeological finds from the Stone Age and the later Bronze and Iron Ages have been found in the east of the county, especially at Isleham. In the Domesday Book, Cambridgeshire was listed as Grantbridgeshire, which is probably related to a bridge over the River Granta, a tributary of the greater Cam. Today's county is the result of several administrative acts, which would go too far to enumerate here. It should only be mentioned that the so-called Soke of Peterborough has always been associated with the city of Peterborough, although the area outside the city was originally part of Northamptonshire. Only the jurisdiction (soke) lay with Peterborough, this area was merged with the city with the neighboring, at that time still independent, county of Huntingdonshire. Eventually this merged county was completely assigned to Cambridgeshire in 1974. The Soke of Peterborough has been an independent administrative unit again since 1998, but ceremonially still belongs to Cambridgeshire and the police and fire brigade are also organized via Cambridgeshire. Due to its flat and level terrain, Cambridgeshire was ideally suited for air bases in World War II, which explains the high number of former airfields of the Royal Air Force and the US armed forces. Famous is the Cambridgeshire Regiment, also known as the Fen Tigers, which fought in Africa in the First and Second World Wars. The nickname of the county's residents is likely to have something to do with this: "cambridgeshire Camel". But "cambridgeshire crane" is also used, which is due to the large population of cranes in the Fens. Since the people of the county are spoken of, the most famous ones should also be mentioned: Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell's home is Huntingdon and the former Prime Minister John Major as well as the great physicist Stephen Hawking are from Cambridgeshire. Milton Children's Home 36

37 4.1 Wisbech Wisbech (['wɪzbi ʧ]), a small market and port town, is located 30 km east-northeast of Peterborough, 20 km southwest of Kings s Lynn (Norfolk) and 55 km north of Cambridge, and belongs to the Fenland district (see IV / 4.2). The river Nene flows through the town, which counts its inhabitants and often causes high water due to the strong tides, which are caused by the nearby bay called The Wash, and on the other hand is often relatively shallow. The small town is known for its beautiful Georgian streets. The urban area of ​​Wisbech was settled early by the Romans, who also left traces of their hydraulic engineering with the now accessible Roman Dyke. After the conquest of England by the Normans, a row of Georgian houses was built on the Nene The Crescent fortress, from where attempts were made to put down the revolts of the Anglo-Saxon population, with Hereward the Wake being particularly prominent, an episcopal palace was built on the same site and is still there today is the name of the location of the large mansion The Castle, which was finally built in 1816 in Regency style. The outlines of the former moat of the original castle can still be seen in the course of The Crescent, which was built around the manor house. Allegedly, the arrested parliamentary bomber Guy Fawkes (Gunpowder plot, see V / 1.12) was also held prisoner in the castle. He had been taken through an underground tunnel to a pier on the nearby River Nene, from where he was taken by ship to his place of execution. The port used to play a major role in the import of wood from Germany and the Baltic region. In the meantime, attempts are being made to convert the port operations to tourism. Also worth seeing is the inconspicuous Peckover House, built in 1722 by the Quaker Jonathan Peckover, with beautiful gardens, which has been the property of the National Trust since 1948. It is also worth taking a look at the medieval church of St. Peter & Paul from the late twelfth century, which is characterized by a crooked church. The local Elgood brewery is known for its good beer. 37

38 4.2 The Fens The Fens are an extensive fen area in the north of Cambridge, with rivers and canals running through them, which was formerly the floodplain of the Witham, Weiland, Nene and Ouse rivers. The strong influence of the drainage experts who came from Flanders in the 16th and 17th centuries can still be felt here and there. That is also the reason why part of the country is commonly referred to as »Holland«, the town of Spalding was a center of tulip cultivation for a long time. The agriculture of the Fens is otherwise mainly characterized by fruit and vegetable cultivation, because the black earth in the drained areas is considered to be very fertile and productive. And so many canning companies settled in the early 20th century. The most important town in the Fens is the small town of Ely. Windmill in Wicken Fen The Fenland is criss-crossed by many bodies of water, a paradise for boaters. But of course this moor area is much more important for flora and fauna, numerous nature reserves find their place in the Fens. Wicken Fen, south of Ely, should be mentioned in particular. It is the first nature reserve managed by the National Trust and has been considered one of the most important wetlands in Europe since Wicken Fen. 4.3 Ely Ely is 23 kilometers north-northeast of Cambridge and has one of the island's greatest treasures. The name of the city comes from "eels Island", ie eel island, which goes back to the former main occupation of the local residents or their catch eels abound in the shallow waters. The small town (pop.) Is primarily not known for these tasty fish, but for one of the largest and most magnificent cathedrals in England. 38

39 Ely Cathedral can be seen from afar in the flat land around Cambridge. If you want to get the best view from the outside, you should approach the building from the south, coming from the river.This covers the entire length of the cathedral. The building was originally built as a monastery church in 1083 A.D. If you stand in the main nave, you can literally feel the grandeur of this place. The ceiling was beautifully painted by amateur Ely Cathedral painters in the 19th century. The original tower collapsed in the 14th century and was replaced by its current lantern-like tower in the middle of the nave. This represents something very special. It is octagonal and in this way there is no longer any in England. It seems to float like a cloud behind the cross of the cathedral. Its vaulted tower, in which there are impressive glass pictures, makes the church even more beautiful. The Lady Chapel in the cathedral has wonderful Gothic arches and the church building also houses the Stained Glass Museum, where you can learn more about stained glass. Outside the cathedral, Ely has rotating exhibitions in the Babylon Gallery, which is located on the riverside. A house of Oliver Cromwell, in which he lived temporarily when he was working as a tax collector in Ely, stands near the cathedral and houses a collection about his life. The tourist office can also be found there. The Royal Standard pub three kilometers northeast of Ely is the Prickwillow Drainage Museum, the main attraction of which are the six huge diesel engines. They were all made in Britain in the early and mid-twentieth centuries and used in pumping stations in the Fenland, the Mirrlees engine was in Prickwillow itself in 1924. The large engines are complemented by a collection of small mobile engines. 39

40 Prickwillow Drainage Museum (left) with Mirrlees engine (right) 4.4 Cambridge Along with Oxford, Cambridge is the most famous university town in Great Britain and one of the most beautiful cities in England. Residents live in Cambridge and the neighboring Milton to the north, and there are people in the city itself, around about of whom are students. Cambridge center from the air Cambridge was founded in 1209, allegedly by academics fleeing Oxford who had quarreled with the townspeople. However, the university did not come into being until 1271 and today it forms a separate community. Believe it or not, it comprises 31 colleges, some of which were designed by Sir Christopher Wren. Cambridge also gained importance during the Reformation in the 16th century. Some of the most famous Protestant and Anglican priests were trained here as cadre schools for the new faith. In later times, however, the will to reform was no longer quite as great. Although the first universities for women were founded in the 1870s, they were not allowed to graduate until 1947. Some universities even refused to accept women as students until the 1980s, and some contemporaries still struggle with that. But these are stubborn individual cases. 40

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