What does 14kb mean on a chain

What is a gene chain? enlightenment

The term gene effect chain describes the tight, genua regulated sequence of metabolic reactions or special metabolic processes. Most of the steps in metabolism take place in several interdependent metabolic reactions. Depending on the complexity of the metabolic process, these processes need to be regulated.

Often, individual sections of a complicated metabolic pathway are controlled by enzymes that are regulated by individual genes.
Intensive regulation is necessary so that a certain metabolic process, for example the production of a certain metabolic product, can run correctly and without errors. For a biosynthetic pathway to work, for example, numerous metabolic reactions connected in series are necessary, which are intensively controlled by specific enzymes or multi-enzyme complexes.

The gene itself is at the beginning of the gene chain. It codes for the formation of enzymes that catalyze certain metabolic processes. If, for example, a protein is to be formed, other metabolic components are necessary in addition to the enzymes that regulate this process. Then a number of structural proteins (the so-called scleroproteins) work closely together to form proteins. Through the formation of these highly specific enzymes or the structural proteins then formed, the corresponding genes can ultimately establish biosynthetic pathways which in turn control certain metabolic processes or the expression of characteristics.

An important aspect is that there are many genes in the gene effect chains and their individual effects are connected in series. This means that for many biosynthesis or metabolic processes in general and for the functioning of these functions, several single genes are required.

Example of a citric acid cycle

Many of these gene chains act on extensive biochemical cycles.
Metabolic processes often run cyclically. This means that metabolic pathways can be summarized in reaction sequences. Individual metabolic products (so-called metabolites) then enter these cycles or are removed from the circulation. The cyclical metabolic pathways are intensely regulated by genes.

In this context, cyclical means that the initial product of the metabolic pathway also acts as an end product. The cycle starts again when the starter molecule is regenerated or replenished by the cycle. The best-known example from the human metabolism is the citric acid cycle, the “hub of metabolism”, in which all parts of the human metabolism come together. This complex cycle is regulated by numerous gene chains: genes form enzymes, which then intervene to regulate the circulation. Thus the gene is directly related to the metabolic end product. So there is a chain of effects.

Diseases can be explained by the gene effect chain

Since a certain gene can be detected for the formation of each enzyme through protein biosynthesis, the conversion of a metabolism thus means a gene effect chain. From this it can be deduced that if there is a genetic defect in a specific gene, then the enzyme encoded by the gene is not synthesized. As a result, the relevant metabolic step is canceled. Because many metabolic processes run one after the other and are based on one another, subsequent biochemical conversions are disrupted if the necessary partial step is missing.

This observation can explain numerous diseases (including hereditary diseases). The breakdown of the gene chain through gene defects disrupts metabolic processes because the biochemical conversions brought about by the enzymes do not take place due to an enzyme that is missing due to the gene defect, which can result in the development of a disease.