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The Jesuit or Society of Jesus are a Catholic male order that was founded on August 15, 1534 by Ignatius von Loyola.
The Jesuit order today consists of 20,000 members who are active in 112 countries.
Tasks [edit | Edit source]
The Jesuit order attaches great importance to the education of its members, for example one has to prove a degree in theology and another subject in order to be accepted. The order also maintains colleges, schools and boarding schools all over the world. These in turn serve the order to spread and consolidate the Catholic religion, especially in the ruling classes.
Another important task is mission, which is why the Jesuit order appears publicly in places where Catholicism is hardly widespread.
Organization [edit | Edit source]
The order is strictly organized and has its model in the military, which is why the leader is referred to as an order general and members are also referred to as soldiers.
The Jesuit order knows 4 levels of its members
- Scholastic (in training)
- spiritual / secular coadjutors (10 years of training)
- Professed (17 years of training, sworn in on the Pope)
Symbols [edit | Edit source]
The monogram IHS (name Jesus in Greek script) is a symbol of the order. The motto of the order is Omnia Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam (All for the higher glory of God).
Superior General of the Order [edit | Edit source]Ignatius von Loyola 1541-1556 Diego Laínez 1558–1565 Francisco de Borja 1565–1572 Everard Mercurian 1573–1580 Claudio Aquaviva 1581–1615 Mutio Vitelleschi 1615–1645 Vincenzo Carafa 1646–1649 Francisco Piccolomini 1649–1651 Luigi Gottifredi 1652–1652 Goswin Nickel 1652 –1664 Gian Paolo Oliva 1664–1681 Charles de Noyelle 1682–1686 Thyrsus González 1687–1705 Michelangelo Tamburini 1706–1730 Franz Retz 1730–1750 Ignazio Visconti 1751–1755 Luigi Centurioni 1755–1757 Lorenzo Ricci 1758–1775 1773 Dissolution of the order Stanislaw Czerniewicz 1782–1785 Gabriel Lenkiewicz 1785–1798 Franciscus Kareu 1799–1802 Gabriel Gruber 1802–1805 1814 reestablishment of the order Tadeusz Brzozowski 1814–1820 Aloisius Fortis 1820–1829 Joannes Philippus Roothaan 1829–1853 Pierre Jean Beckx 1853–1887 Antonius Maria Anderledy 1887–1892 Louis Martin 1892–1901 Franz Xaver Wernz 1906–1914 Wladimir Ledóchowski 1915–1942 Jean Baptiste Janssens 1915–1942 Pedro Arrupe 1965–1983 Peter Hans Kolvenbach 1983–2008 Adolfo Nicolás 2008-
Acting generals from 1981-1983 were Paolo Dezza and Giuseppe Pittau for Pedro Arrupe, who was prevented from doing so as a result of a stroke.
Oath [edit | Edit source]
I …………………………………. (Name of the future member of the Jesuits), become now, in the presence of Almighty God, the blessed Virgin Mary, the blessed Archangel Michael, the Blessed John the Baptist, the holy apostles Peter and Paul and all the holy and holy heavenly hosts and to you, my spiritual father, the superior general of the union of Jesus, founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola, in the pontifical office of Paul III. and continuing to the present, brought forth by the body of the Virgin, Mother of God, and the staff of Jesus Christ, declare and swear that His Holiness the Pope is Christ's Vice-Regent; and he is the true and only Head of the Catholic and Universal Church over all the earth; and that by virtue of the key to bind and loosen his holiness given by my Savior Jesus Christ, he has the power to remove from office heretical kings, princes, states, republics and governments, all of which are illegal without his sacred endorsement , and that they are sure to be destroyed.
I further declare that I will help and assist all or any representatives of Your Holiness in any place wherever I may be and advise them and do my utmost to rightfully or otherwise eradicate the heretical Protestant or liberal teachings and destroy all power they claim.
I promise and also declare that I nonetheless refrain from adopting any heretical religion, in order to expand the interests of the Mother Church and to keep all plans of its representatives secret and confidential, and if they may give me instructions from time to time, not directly or from them to announce indirectly by word or writing or whatever circumstances but to carry out everything that you, my spiritual father, suggest, instruct or reveal to me ...
I further promise that I will not have any opinion or will of my own, or any spiritual reservation, whatever, even as a corpse or a corpse, but will willingly obey every single command I receive from my colonel in the army of the Pope and Jesus Christ may receive.
That I will go to any part of the world, wherever, without grumbling, and will be submissive in all things, however I am entrusted ... I also promise that, when the opportunity arises, I will ruthlessly declare war and act secretly or openly against all heretics, Protestants and liberals, as I am commanded to do, to root them out and make them disappear from the surface of the earth; and I will not stop at age, social position or any circumstances do.
I will hang them, burn them, devastate them, cook them, behead them, strangle them and bury these heretics alive, slit the bellies of women and hit the heads of their children against the wall, only to destroy their cursed brood forever.
And if I cannot kill them in public, I will do so in secret with a poisoned chalice, gallows, dagger or leaden bullet, regardless of the honor, rank, dignity or authority of the person or persons who make them hold; no matter how they are in public or in private life.
I will act as and whenever I am commanded by any agent of the Pope or head of the Brotherhood of the Sacred Faith of the Society of Jesus. "
Conspiracy theories Edit source]
Since the beginning of modern times, the Jesuits have been accused of many conspiracies, which even led to a dissolution by Pope Clement XIV in 1773 and the order to seek protection in Protestant states (cf. Templars). The order was re-approved in 1814 by Pope Pius VII.
Due to the rigid power structure of the Society of Jesus, the order general is often referred to as the "Black Pope". Some theorists even assume that the order general stands above the right Pope, while others see the function and power of the Jesuits long since replaced by Opus Dei.
Interestingly enough, there were also numerous Jesuits who themselves spread anti-Freemasons and anti-Illuminati conspiracy theories. The best known is Augustin Barruel.
Jesuits as fighters against enlightenment and Protestantism Edit source]
The Jesuits played a crucial role in the Counter-Reformation in the early modern period, for which they in part among Protestants as a species intelligence of the "anti-Christian" Pope are disreputable.
In regions where the Catholic faith was seen as endangered, Jesuit religious houses were opened. And in countries that forbade this (Ireland, England, Germany, etc.), Jesuit fathers were secretly smuggled in.
In the countries where this was possible, the Jesuits took on pastoral duties and founded schools and universities in which the Catholic faith was consolidated, and with ample financial support from the Vatican they built magnificent churches with which they wanted to make an impression on the population.
The Jesuits also took on the task of pastoral care and the education of their descendants for many rulers, which led to the suspicion that they were manipulating them in the interests of the Pope.
The infiltration of Protestant countries, the possible influence on rulers and, of course, the resulting threat to Protestants and the Enlightenment, leave a lot of room for conspiracy theories to ferment.
see also: Gunpowder Plot, Papist Conspiracy
Monita Secreta [edit | Edit source]
The reason for the mistrust is provided by the "Monita Secreta" (Latin for "secret admonitions"), which appeared in Krakow in 1614 and were supposed to be instructions from the fifth general, Claudio Aquaviva, to the Fathers. Today the authenticity of this writing is doubted. It is criticized that there are different, mutually contradicting and sometimes even self-contradicting reports about the finding of the "Monita Secreta" (cf. Protocols of the Elders of Zion). According to one version, Duke Christian von Braunschweig is said to have found the writing, but it was just twelve years old in 1614, other versions relocate the place of discovery to Paderborn, Prague, Liège, Antwerp, Glatz and a hijacked East India sailor. A more credible, but unproven version says that the writing was brought to the public by the Pole Hieronim Zahorowski, who was expelled from the order in 1611.
According to the "Monita Secreta", the Jesuits should adhere to a "The end justifies the means" doctrine in order to increase the power and prosperity of the order. One should gain influence over the powerful, for example by forgiving as a confessor a less harsh penance than the clergy of other orders, which one should keep away from slander and other means of church offices. Political and private secrets of the princes should be gathered in every possible way. Widows should be made to stop marrying, so that their property goes to the order. Children of these widows should join the order. The wealth of the order should always be presented to the church as small and needy, while it should be seen as generous towards the poor.
Persecution and suspension of the Jesuits Edit source]
The persecution of the Jesuits is unthinkable without the conspiracy allegation, in spite of which there were always different motives to take action against the Jesuits.
Portugal [edit | Edit source]
The leading minister of Portugal, the Marquis of Pombal, clashed with the Jesuits for two reasons:
- They opposed the attempt to subjugate the Portuguese Church to King Joseph I and
- There were problems clearing Spanish Jesuit reductions in South America
The latter reason was undoubtedly the heaviest. The Jesuit Reductions (also known as the Jesuit State) were settlements established by the Jesuits in South America to protect the indigenous population. In 1750, the area on which seven of these reductions were located fell to Portugal, which demanded a non-violent evacuation of the settlements. Despite the Jesuits' request to obey this, the aborigines violently resisted their resettlement. The Jesuit order was nevertheless blamed by Pombal for the resulting 5 years of guerrilla warfare, and he accused it of striving for its own unofficial state in South America. The remaining reductions were then canceled.
After the earthquake in Lisbon in 1755, the Jesuit Gabriel Malagrid accused the government in a public sermon of causing this calamity. This accusation made the relationship between the order and the state even more strained.
On September 3, 1758, Joseph I was assassinated. The king was on his way home to Ajuda, where he resided in a tent city because his castle was destroyed in the 1755 earthquake. He came from a pastoral hour with his mistress and was therefore without an escort. He was ambushed and shot on the way to Ajuda. The perpetrators were caught and, under torture, confessed to being hired by the Tavoras. The Tavora family were members of the nobility and were in sharp opposition to the Marquis of Pombal. Pombal took the opportunity to charge the entire family with high treason. Even the teacher of Leonora de Tavora the Jesuit monk Gabriel Malagrida was arrested with 9 other priests and later died at the stake. On January 13, 1759, almost the entire family was executed, their property confiscated and their name deleted from the register of nobility.
To this day, the Tavora affair has not been resolved because Pombal was not interested in an explanation. Instead, he blamed the Jesuits with no evidence. In January 1759 he had the Jesuit properties confiscated, and in October all Jesuits were expelled from Portugal.
France [edit | Edit source]
In France, their competition with the Jansenists was fatal for the Jesuits. They also did not shy away from spreading lies about the Jesuits, for example the rumor that the order had commissioned Robert Francois Damiens in 1751 to carry out an assassination attempt on King Louis XV. to perpetrate.
The Jesuits' loyalty to the Pope also had a negative effect here, because in the motherland of absolutism attempts were made to rob the Church of all secular power.
In 1730 the Jesuits still seemed to triumph over the Jansenists, but Antoine de LaValette, Superior General of the Jesuit Missions in Latin America, had been targeted for illegal trading in Martinique. In 1755 he was bankrupt, leaving behind 2.4 million livres in debt. Well, the French Jesuits should shoulder the burden LaValette had placed in Latin America. But the Jesuits refused, claiming that each Jesuit house operated economically completely independently.
This conjured up a process and this just before the Jansenist-dominated "Parlement" (court) of Paris. Until 1764 this covered the secret Constitutiones of the order. It turned out that the Jesuits obeyed the Pope, not the King, with absolute obedience. The contact between the Jesuits and their superiors was forbidden and the property of the order was confiscated. In November, King Louis XV. an edict that required the Jesuits to take the oath of allegiance to the king, but only six followed this, which ended the Jesuits' official activity in France.
Spain [edit | Edit source]
For Spain, the Jesuit reductions in South America were the stumbling block: The Jesuits had allowed the idios to arm themselves against the notorious slave traders from Sao Paulo Paulistani banders, To defend. The Spanish government suspected that it was an attempt to consolidate the power of a Jesuit state in South America. The Jesuits were also seen, without any evidence, as masterminds behind the "Madrid hat revolt".
In February 1767 the order was abolished in Spain and its colonies and the reductions dissolved.
Papal repeal of the order Edit source]
With Portugal, Spain and France, three thrones occupied by Bourbon had stood against the Jesuits. These endeavors now to smash the order in the rest of the world, which was only possible with the help of the Pope.
Terretorial disputes between the Bourbon Duchy of Parma and the Papal States soon offered the possibility of exerting pressure on the Pope through this. After tough negotiations, Clemens XIV submitted and on August 21, 1773 lifted the order with the breve "Dominus ac redemptor noster". In the following year, three smaller territories that had occupied the Bourbon powers were returned.
When Clemens XIV died in September 1773, Jean Baptiste d'Alembert murmured in a letter to King Frederick II of Prussia that the Pope had surely succumbed to a poison attack by the vengeful Jesuits.
But that did not end the fear of the Jesuits, on the contrary, because now the Jesuits were an even more intangible threat than before.
later Jesuit bans and persecutions in the 18th and 19th centuries Century [edit | Edit source]
In 1814 the Society of Jesus was re-approved by Pope Pius VII. Despite ever new expulsions and bans, the order quickly grew back to its old size.
In the Swiss constitution (after the Sonderbund War) of 1848 there was a Jesuit article that prohibited not only the order itself, but all Jesuits from any activity in state and church. This article was repealed in 1973.
Shortly after the establishment of the German Empire, the Jesuits were expelled from the country during the so-called Kulturkampf in 1872.Towards the end of the First World War, these Jesuit laws were repealed again in 1917.
During the time of National Socialism, the Jesuits and the Freemasons were counted among the "pests of the people". Several fathers were banned from preaching, restricted in their activities, persecuted and interned in concentration camps. Father Rupert Mayer, an important male pastor and preacher at the Jesuit Church of St. Michael, was banished into exile. Father Alfred Delp was arrested as a member of the Kreisau Circle and executed in Berlin-Plötzensee. Numerous other order members from all over Europe were interned in the so-called "priest block" in the Dachau concentration camp.
Oath of the Jesuits Edit source]
An argument that has been repeatedly used against the Jesuits is an alleged oath they had to take. It is not clear whether this oath is authentic or an anti-Catholic forgery. According to some encyclopedia entries, the Jesuit oath was abolished in 1926.
The wording of the alleged oath is like this
- “I ____, declare and swear now, in the presence of Almighty God, the blessed Virgin Mary, the blessed Archangel Michael, the Blessed John the Baptist, the holy apostles Peter and Paul and all the holy and holy heavenly hosts and in yours Present, my Spiritual Father, General of the Society of Jesus, founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola, during the pontificate of Paul III. and carried on to the present, at the womb of the Virgin, the Theotokos, and the Shepherdess of Jesus Christ, that His Holiness the Pope is Christ's Vicar, and that He is the true and only Head of the Catholic or universal Church in all the earth ; and that because of the keys to binding and loosening given to his holiness through my Savior Jesus Christ, he has the power to depose or dissolve heretical kings, princes, states, communities of states and governments, all of which are without his holy confirmation, and that they can be destroyed without hesitation.
- I further declare that I will help, stand by and advise all or some of His Holiness’s representatives in any place, wherever I may be, and that I will do my utmost to root out the heretical Protestant or freethinking teachings and destroy their power Wise or different.
- I further promise and declare to regard any religion as heretical in order to promote the interests of the mother church and to keep all advice of its representatives secret and confidential, if they may give me instructions from time to time, and not directly or indirectly through word or To disclose writing or whatever circumstances; but to carry out everything that you, my spiritual father, suggest, ask or reveal to me ...
- I promise and further declare that I will not have any opinion or will of my own or any mental reservation, even as a corpse or cadaver (cadaver obedience), but will obey without hesitation every single command that I receive from my superiors in the Pope's army and Jesus Christ may receive ...
- That I will go to any part of the world, wherever, without going to. grumble, and will be submissive in all things, whatever I am ordered to ... I also promise and declare that, when the opportunity arises, I will wage a merciless war, secretly or openly, against all heretics, Protestants and liberals as I am commanded to do, to exterminate and destroy them from the surface of the earth;
- And I don't want to stop at age, gender, or social position and hang, devastate, boil, skin, strangle and bury these hideous heretics, slit the bellies of their wives and bang the heads of their children against the wall, for their cursed kind to extinguish forever.
- And if I cannot do this publicly, I will do so secretly with the poison chalice, the rope, the dagger or the leaden ball, regardless of the honor, rank, dignity or authority of the persons, regardless of their position in public or private life. I shall act at all times as and whenever I am commanded by any agent of the Pope or by a superior of the Brotherhood of the Sacred Faith of the Society of Jesus. "
Registered on the Register of the United States Congress. (House Bill 1523, Contested election case of Eugene C. Bonniwell, against Thos. S. Butler, February 15, 1913, pp. 3215-16) However, the authenticity is not confirmed by this source (More information on this source).
Alberto Rivera [edit | Edit source]
Alberto Magno Romero Rivera is one of the main sources for many anti-Catholic and anti-Jesuit conspiracy theories today. He claims to have been a Jesuit in Spain before he became a fundamentalist Protestant, but became entangled in contradictions several times over his own history.
According to Rivera, the truth about Nazism and Communism (socialism) was revealed to him during his time as a Jesuit: "For three years I was tutored by a brilliant German Jesuit, Augustin Cardinal Bea, who gave us top-secret information that was never in History books will appear. "
I.N.R.I. [edit | Edit source]
According to popular belief, I.N.R.I. in the Catholic context for "I.ESUS NAZARENUS R.EX I.UDAEORUM "-" Jesus, the Nazarenes, the King of the Jews "- which is considered a mockery of the Romans and thus, as part of the crucifixion, has become a symbol of Christianity.
According to anti-Jesuit conspiracy theory, I.N.R.I. for the Jesuits it has a different meaning: "I.USTUM NECARE R.EGES I.MPIOS "which should mean as much as it is fair to exterminate godless rulers. In fact, it is known that the Carbonari are the slogan"I.ustum necare reges I.taliae "used.
Jesuits and Illuminati [edit | Edit source]
According to official historiography, these organizations were spider enemies, but some (mostly fundamentalist Protestant) believe that the Illuminati order is in truth a cover organization of the Jesuits.
What is certain is that the Illuminati order copied Jesuit organizational structures and was reprimanded for them during the time of its existence. The founder of the order Adam Weishaupt was, as some sources claim, a Jesuit, other sources point out that he was almost the only professor at Ingolstadt University who was not a former Jesuit, from which the quarrels arose against which he was against by founding the Wanted to secure the Illuminati Order.
It is known that Jesuits were excluded from the Illuminati order.
Another theory suggests that Ignatius von Loyola was the founder of the Illuminati, presumably based on alleged contacts between him and the Alumbrados.
Quotes [edit | Edit source]
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky in Isis Unveiled(Isis unveiled): "It is curious to note too that most of the bodies which work these, such as the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, the Rite of Avignon, the Order of the Temple, Fessler's Rite, the" Grand Council of the Emperors of the East and West - Sovereign Prince Masons, "etc., etc., are nearly all the offspring of the sons of Ignatius Loyola. The Baron Hundt, Chevalier Ramsay, Tschoudy, Zinnendorf, and numerous others who founded the grades in these rites, worked under Instructions from the General of the Jesuits. The nest where these high degrees were hatched, and no Masonic rite is free from their baleful influence more or less, was the Jesuit College of Clermont at Paris. "
- ("It is also curious that most of the bodies such as the ancient and accepted Scottish Rite, the Avignon Rite, the Order of the Temple, Fessior's Rite, the Grand Council of Emperors from East and West, Souvereign Prince Masons, etc., etc. , almost all of them are the offspring of Ignatius Loyola. Baron Hundt, Chevalier Ramsey, Tschoudi, Zinnendorf and numerous others who established the steps in the rites worked under the direction of the general of the Jesuits. The nest in which these high degrees were hatched, and no Masonic rite is more or less free from their influence, was the Jesuit College of Clermont in Paris.")
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