Eligard injection, how to mix
Vaccine dosage forms
Last edited by Astrid Clasen • Medical editor
Vaccinations differ, among other things, in their form of administration. The most common form of vaccination is injection: Here the vaccine is injected into the muscle (intramuscular), under the skin (subcutaneous) or into the skin (intradermal).
With most of the vaccines used today, it is common to vaccinate intramuscular to administer. The deltoid muscle is generally considered to be the best vaccination site for this upper arm - In babies whose deltoids are still too small, the vaccine can be put in the instead Thigh splash.
Vaccines injected into the Glutes to administer applies generally Not as recommended, as the vaccination does not work as well and complications are more common there.
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The fact that intramuscular injection is the most widespread of all vaccine administration forms is stated in the Contradiction to the fact that the cells that are directly responsible for building an immune response are in the highest concentration in the outermost layer of the skin (= Epidermis or epidermis).
With oral vaccinations, the body absorbs the vaccine through the gastrointestinal tract. The pathogens that penetrate the body through the surface of the mucous membrane include, for example, the pathogen causing polio. To Polio vaccination There are two vaccination methods available - the oral vaccination according to Sabin and the injection vaccination according to Salk:
- In the Oral polio vaccination a live attenuated vaccine is used. This dosage form has the advantagethat it is very simple and that it is widely accepted by the people to be vaccinated - especially children. In addition, no trained personnel is required for administration. A serious one disadvantage however, vaccination poliomyelitis (paralysis) occurs in 1 in 4.5 million vaccinations.
- The Polio vaccination by syringe takes place with a dead vaccine. The vaccine is very sure; there are no side effects or illnesses. The Standing Vaccination Commission (STIKO) has recommended polio vaccination since January 1998 only by injection.
A new development is the Spray vaccination: This is where the vaccine arrives through the airways in the body. For example, in addition to the conventional flu vaccine, a comparably effective nasal spray for flu vaccination is available. In the future, too, when vaccinating against measles, the spray could replace the syringe, as the inhaled measles vaccine works better than the needle-fed vaccine. In addition, the spray vaccination is one fast and gentle methodwhich eliminates the risk of infection from contaminated needles, albeit small.
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A further development are edible vaccines made from genetically modified plants (such as a cholera vaccine made from bananas): Here the plants should directly form a vaccine. The benefit of this vaccine would be its simple form of administration: It would be absorbed into the organism simply by consuming the plant. In addition, the vaccine would have a natural and environmentally friendly "packaging".
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