What is Morgengifu Anglo-Saxon

Folk words in Pactus and Lex Alamannorum 3863094956, 9783863094959, 9783863094966

Table of contents:
1. Introduction 9
2. Early vernacular lexicon 11
2.1. Old High German texts, glosses and inserts 12
2.2. Vernacular words in Middle Latin laws 12
2.3. German verbatim in the Lex Alamannorum 15
2.4. Research history 16
2.4.1. Reference works 17
2.4.2. Editions 17
2.4.3. Monographs 18
2.4.4. Lex Alamannorum 20
2.4.5. Status quo and objectives 21
3. The Lex Alamannorum 23
3.1. The early Alemanni 23
3.2. Pactus and Lex Alamannorum 25
3.3. Alemannic people's law - Reichenau monastery law? 27
3.4. Content and structure of the Lex Alamannorum 28
4. The Leges manuscripts - book treasure or object of daily use? 30th
4.1. Unadorned utility manuscripts 31
4.2. 'Professio Iuris' 32
4.3. Signs of wear and glosses 33
4.4. Language, quality and scope 34
4.5. 'Secundum legem scriptam' 35
4.6. Conclusion 35
5. Catalogus Codicum Legis Alamannorum 37
5.1. The tradition of Alemannic national law 37
5.1.1. Number of manuscripts 37
5.1.2. Place of origin 38
5.1.3. Principle of manuscript composition 40
5.2. On the informative value of the laying sources - language and writing 43
5.3. The attachment of the manuscript description 44
5.4. Relationship between texts and relationships of dependency 46
5.5. The A manuscripts 46
5.6. The B manuscripts 83
5.7. Excerpts and collations 165
5.8. Manuscripts 169 recently assigned to the Alemannic Rights
5.9. More recent manuscripts and prints 186
5.10. More recent copies and prints 192
5.11. Prints not taken into account 194
5.12. Manuscripts documented by catalogs 195
5.13. Manuscript verifiable in a will 198
5.14. Burned and lost manuscripts 199
5.15. Exclusion manuscripts 203
5.16. Doubt 206
6. Germanic vernacular words in Pactus and Lex Alamannorum 208
6.1. Subject of investigation 208
6.2. Article structure 210
6.3. Translation principles of historical word research 214
7. Glossarium verborum vernaculorum 216
8. Evaluation 548
8.1. Inserts: Forms and Functions 548
8.1.1. Glossaries and inserts 548
8.1.2. Language Layers 553
8.1.2.1. The oldest layer 554
8.1.2.2. The younger layer 555
8.1.2.3. The youngest layer 556
8.1.2.4. Loanwords 556
8.1.3. quod Alamanni ... dicunt - the marked insertion 557
8.1.3.1. The marking of vernacular inserts 557
8.1.3.2. Insertion method in Lex Alamannorum 559
8.1.3.3. Determinans vs. Determinate 562
8.1.3.4. Relationships of meaning and areas of impact 563
8.1.3.5. Grammatical Differentiation 566
8.1.4. Technical language 569
8.2. The evaluation of the Old Upper German 570
8.2.1. Evaluation of the Alemannic manuscripts 572
8.2.2. Evaluation of the Bavarian manuscripts 577
8.3. Historical lexicology: Alemannic national law - Alemannic tribal lexic? 582
9. Results 585
10. Directories 591
10.1. List of Abbreviations 591
10.2. List of Figures 592
10.3. List of Tables 593
10.4. Bibliography 594
10.5. Overview of the manuscripts mentioned in the text 652
10.6. Register 655

Citation preview

11

Bamberg interdisciplinary medieval studies

Vincenz Schwab

Folk words in Pactus and Lex Alamannorum

11 Bamberg interdisciplinary medieval studies

Bamberg interdisciplinary medieval studies

ed. from the Center for Medieval Studies at the Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

Volume 11

2017

Folk words in Pactus and Lex Alamannorum

Vincenz Schwab

2017

Bibliographic information from the German National Library The German National Library lists this publication in the German National Bibliography; detailed bibliographic information is available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de/.

This thesis was presented to the Faculty of Humanities and Cultural Studies at the Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg as a dissertation. 1. Reviewer: Prof. Dr. Stefanie Stricker 2nd reviewer: Prof. em. Dr. Rolf Bergmann Oral exam day: 03.02.2017

This work is available as a free online version via the university publications server (OPUS; http://www.opus-bayern.de/uni-bamberg/) of the Bamberg University Library. Copies and printouts may only be made for private and other personal use. Production and printing: docupoint, Magdeburg Cover design: University of Bamberg Press, Larissa Günther Cover image: State Library Bamberg, Msc.Jur.35, fol.2r, Gerald Raab © University of Bamberg Press Bamberg 2017 http: //www.uni-bamberg. de / ubp / ISSN: 1865-4622 ISBN: 978-3-86309-495-9 (print edition) eISBN: 978-3-86309-496-6 (online edition) URN: urn: nbn: de: bvb: 473 -opus4-495536 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20378/irbo-49553

Omnis labor finem abet, premium autem eius non abet finem. Quia sicut nauiganti desiderabilis est portus, ita scrip tori nouissimus uersus. Quia tres digiti scribunt, unde totus corpus laborat.

Paris, BN. lat. 4632, f. 59v

My parents

V.

Preface

This book is a revised version of my dissertation, which was accepted in the 2016/17 winter semester at the Faculty of Humanities and Cultural Studies at the Otto Friedrich University of Bamberg. We would like to thank the Bamberg Center for Medieval Studies (ZeMas) for being included in the series of Interdisciplinary Medieval Studies. For the successful completion of this work I would also like to thank all those who have contributed to the creation and success of this book. My special and heartfelt thanks go to my academic teachers Prof. Dr. Stefanie Stricker and Prof. Dr. Thomas Becker (†). As a student, Thomas Becker taught me how to enjoy linguistic issues and, since my final thesis, put me on the path to a doctorate; Stefanie Stricker was always at my side as a supervisor, caring, patient, understanding and helpful in all questions. My thanks also go to Prof. em. Dr. Rolf Bergmann for taking on the second report and valuable information on the content, Prof. Dr. Bernd Goldmann for his various assistance during the writing of the thesis as well as Prof. em. Dr. Wolfgang Haubrichs for the always profitable exchange about the common area of ​​interest. Thanks go to Gerald Raab and the Bamberg State Library for their friendly help and willing support with digital copies, media in all forms and a quiet workplace. I would like to thank Dr. Rudolf Feistritzer and the St. Paul Abbey Archives, Father Roman Nägele OCist and the Heiligenkreuz Abbey Library, Lorenzo Pongiluppi and the Diocesan Museum in Modena, the library of the Cathedral Chapter Ivrea and the University and State Library of Tyrol in Innsbruck for the opportunity to present extremely valuable manuscripts and prints Place to be allowed to take autopsy. Thanks go to Father Petrus Schuster OSB and the Kremsmünster Abbey Library, Dr. Erik Petersen and the Copenhagen University Library as well as Viviane Cattane and the Autun City Library for the helpful and uncomplicated provision of photographs. In addition, the St. Gallen Abbey Library, the Thuringian University and State Library Jena and VII

the Bavarian State Library in Munich kindly grants image rights free of charge. I would like to thank all friends, colleagues and assistants as well as fellow students in the Bamberg Graduate School for Medieval Studies (BaGraMS) and the Graduate School of Linguistics (BaGL), who advised me during the entire time that the project took up, Helped me in a variety of ways and made my work easier. My biggest thanks go to my family. This book is dedicated to my parents for their unconditional support at all times.

VIII

Table of contents 1. 2. 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.4.1. 2.4.2. 2.4.3. 2.4.4. 2.4.5. 3. 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 4. 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 4.6. 5.1. 5.1.1. 5.1.2. 5.1.3. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. A1

Introduction ................................................. ................................... 9 Early vernacular lexicon ........... ........................................... 11 Old High German texts, glosses and inserts ......................... 12 vernacular words in Middle Latin laws ......... 12 German words in the Lex Alamannorum ... ..................... 15 History of research ........................... ................................... 16 reference works ............. .................................................. ..... 17 editions ........................................... ........................................ 17 monographs ........ .................................................. ................ 18 Lex Alamannorum ............................... ..................................... 20 Status quo and objectives ........ ............................................. 21 The Lex Alamannorum. .................................................. .......... 23 D. the early Alemanni ............................................... ............. 23 Pactus and Lex Alamannorum ................................ ................ 25 Alemannic People's Law - Reichenau Monastery Law? ....... 27 Content and structure of the Lex Alamannorum ............................ 28 The Leges manuscripts - Buchschatz or Commodity? ................................................ ............. 30 unadorned utility manuscripts .................................. .31 Professio Iuris .............................................. ............................... 32 signs of use and glosses ............... ................................ 33 Language, quality and scope ............ .................................... 34 Secundum legem scriptam .......... ................................................ 35 Conclusion .................................................. ......................................... 35 Catalogus Codicum Legis Alamannorum .... ........................... 37 The tradition of Alemannic popular law ..... 37 Number of manuscripts ......... .............................................. 37 places of origin .. ................................................. ..................... 38 Principle of manuscript composition ......................... ......... 40 On the informative value of the laying sources - language and writing ..43 The attachment of the manuscript description ......................... .44 Textual relationship and relationships of dependency .............. 46 The A manuscripts .......................... ...................................... 46 St. Gallen, StiftsB. Cod. 731 (olim M.n.24) ............................. 51 1

A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 / B11 A12 / P 5.6. B1.1 B1.2 B1a B1b B2

Munich, BSB. Clm 4115 (olim Cimel. IV 3g) ...................... 54 Vienna, ÖNB. Cod. 502 (olim iur. Civil. 211) ............................ 57 Rome, BV. Reg. Lat. 520 ............................................. ................ 59 Paris, BN. lat. 4759B ............................................... ................. 61 Modena, Archivio e Biblioteca Capitolare, Ord. I. 2 ............... 62 Gotha, ForschungsB. , Memb. I 84 .......................................... 67 Wolfenbüttel, HAB. Cod. Guelf. 513 Helmstadiensis ........... 70 Paris, BN. lat. 4404 ............................................... .................... 72 St. Gallen, StiftsB. Cod. 729 (olim 97) .................................... 76 Wolfenbüttel, HAB. Cod. Guelf. 327 Gudianus Lat. 4 ° .......... 79 Paris, BN. lat. 10753 (olim suppl. lat. 215) ............................. 80 The B-manuscripts ..... .................................................. ......... 83 London, BL. Egerton 269 ................................................ ......... 87 Paris, BN. lat. 4633 ............................................... .................... 89 Paris, BN. lat. 18236 ............................................... ................. 90 Cologny-Genève, Bibliotheca Bodmeriana Cod. 107 ............. 91 Copenhagen, Det Kongelige Bibliotek, Gl. Kgl. Saml. 1943. 4 °. .................................................. ................................................. 94 B3 Bamberg, State B. Msc. iur. 35 (olim D.II / 2) ......................... 95 B4 Munich, BSB. Clm 19415 ................................................ ..... 98 B5 Paris, BN. lat. 4632 ............................................... .................. 100 B6 Hamburg, State and University Library. Ms. 141a 4 ° in scrin. ................ 103 B7 Paris, BN. lat. 4628 ............................................... .................. 104 B8 Trier, CityB. 843/120 ............................................... ............. 107 B9 Munich, BSB. Clm 4460 ................................................ ..... 108 B10 Paris, BN. lat. 4787 ............................................... .................. 110 B12 St. Gallen, CityB. Cod. 338 (olim C. 7.) ............................... 113 B13 Munich, BSB. Clm 3853 ................................................ ..... 114 B14 Heiligenkreuz, StiftsB. Hs. 217 ............................................. 117 B15 / A15 Herold, Originum ac Germanicarum Antiquitatum Libri .. 120 Du Tillet, Aurei venerandaeque antiquitatis libelli .............. 120 B16 B17 Ivrea, Biblioteca Capitolare XXXIII [4] ...... ............................ 120 B18 Vienna, ÖNB. Cod. 601 (olim iuris civ. 288) ........................... 122 B19 Leiden, UB. Voss. Lat. Sc. 119 .............................................. 126 B20 St. Paul (in Lavanttal), Stiftsarchiv Ms. 4/1 (olim 25.4.8) ... 128 B21 Rome, BV. Reg. Lat. 857 ............................................. .............. 131

2

B22 B23 B24 B25 B26 B27 B28

Rome, BV. Reg. Lat. 991 ............................................. ............... 133 Rome, BV. Reg. Lat. 1050 ............................................. ............. 136 Rome, BV. Reg. Lat. 1128 (olim 377) ........................................ 140 Paris, BN. lat. 4614 (olim Colb. 777, reg. 4898) .................... 142 Paris, BN. lat. 9654 (olim suppl. lat. 75) ............................... 144 St. Gallen, StiftsB. Cod. 732 ............................................... .... 147 Wolfenbüttel, HAB. Cod. Guelf. 130 Blankenburgensis (52) .... ......................................... .................................................. ...... 149 B31 Stuttgart, WLB. Cod. Iur. 4o 134 (olim Weißenau, Schloß B. Cod. 21) ...................................... ............................................. 152 B32 Paris, BN . lat. 4417 ............................................... .................. 154 B33 Paris, BN. lat. 4759 ............................................... .................. 156 B35 Paris, BN. lat. 18237 (olim Fonds Notre Dame 252.F.9) ...... 157 Paris, BN. Nouv. acq. lat. 204 ............................................... ..161 B37 B38 Berlin, Ms. lat. Fol. 378 ................................................. .......... 162 5.7. Excerpts and collations ............................................... ........ 165 C1 Munich, BSB. Clm 2621 (olim Aldersbach 91) .................. 165 C2 Munich, BSB. Clm 11029 ................................................ .... 167 BR850 Rome, BV. Reg. Lat. 850 ............................................. ............... 168 5.8. Manuscripts recently assigned to the Alemannic Rights ............................................ ............................. 169 Autun Building, Bibliothèque municipale S40 (36) ........... .................. 169 BK112 Karlsruhe, BLB. Aug. perg. 112 ............................................. 171 B30b Copenhagen, Royal Library Coll. nov. No. 115, folio ... .......................................... .................................................. ..... 174 AKI / 9 Kremsmünster, StiftsB. Fragm. I / 9 ....................................... 176 BP4995 Paris, BN. lat. 4995 ............................................... .................. 179 BSP81 / 2 St. Paul, Stiftsarchiv, Ms. 81/2 ................. .............................. 181 BRV20 Rome, Biblioteca Vallicelliana Ms. C 20 .......... ........................ 182 BR1283 Rome, BV. Reg. Lat. 1283a ............................................. ........... 184 5.9. More recent manuscripts and prints ...................................... 186 B15 / A15 Herold, Originum ac Germanicarum Antiqvitatum Libri ... 186 Du Tillet, Aurei venerandaeque antiquitatis libelli ............... 187 B16 B30a Schilter, The oldest German as well as general and particular Alsatian and Strasbourg chronicles ... 188

3

B34 B36 5.10.

5.11. 5.12. [BK1-6] [BK7-8] [BK9] [BK10] [BK11] 5.13. 5.14. [B29] [B30]

5.15.

5.16. 6. 6.1. 6.2. 6.3.

4

Sichart, Leges Ribuoariorumque, quas vocant, a Theoderice rege Francorum latae ..................................... ........................ 189 Lindenbrog, Codex legum antiquarum .................... ............. 190 More recent copies and prints ................................ .......... 192 Goldast, Rerum alamannicarum scriptores ......................... 192 Paris, BN. Département des manuscrits, Baluze ................. 193 Merkel, Leges Alamannorum. Leges Baiuwariorum. Leges Burgundionum. Lex Frisionum ............................................ 194 Prints not included ................................................ 194 Avg Catalogs documented manuscripts ................................. 195 Reichenauer catalog, a. 821–822 ........................................... 195 Reichenauer catalog, a. 835-842 ........................................... 196 Breviarium librorum Isgherti abbatis, a. 876 ....................... 197 Passau, a. 903 ................................................. ........................ 197 Clairmont near Paris ...................... .......................................... 197 handwriting verifiable in will ... .................... 198 Eberhard von Friuli, will ........................ .................... 198 Burned and lost manuscripts ......................... ... 199 Strasbourg, UB. (olim Rat Büchler), op. Burned in 1870 ........ 199 Strasbourg, UB.C V 6, a. Burned in 1870 .............................. 200 Munich, Georgianum, Philol. 8 ° 26, loss of war ........... 201 Reims, St. Remi (Codex of the Remigius Abbey), lost ... 202 Fulda, abbey library 507 ............. ........................................ 203 Exclusion manuscripts ........ ............................................... 203 Ms. Basel C. III. 1 ................................................. .................. 203 London, BL. Egerton 2832 ................................................ ..... 204 Rome, BV. Reg. Lat. 837 ............................................. .............. 205 Rome, BV. Ottob. lat. 2225 ............................................... ....... 206 In case of doubt ......................................... .................................... 206 Weißenau ............ .................................................. .................. 206 Germanic vernacular words in Pactus and Lex Alamannorum ...................... .................................................. 208 Subject of investigation ................................................ .... 208 Article structure ............................................ ............................ 210 Translation principles of historical word research ......... 214

7.

Glossarium verborum vernaculorum .................................... 216 ALŌDUM / -us ...... .................................................. ..................... 216 ANETA ........................... .................................................. .......... 220 APHUL ...................................... ................................................ 223 BANNUS .................................................. .................................. 225 BARUS .............. .................................................. ....................... 228 BIKURZEN ......................... .................................................. ...... 234 BĪSELBEMO .......................................... ...................................... 236 BĪZAN .......... .................................................. ........................... 238 BRĀMEN ..................... .................................................. ............. 239 BRUOGEN ................................... ................... ............................ 241 BURICA .................... .................................................. ............... 243 DIOP ................................. .................................................. ...... 247 ĒWA .......................................... ................................................ 249 FANO .................................................. ....................................... 253 FIRSCOPPŌN ......... .................................................. .................. 257 FIRING .............................. ................................................. 259 FLEDUS / FLIDUS (MEDIO- / MINOFLEDUS / -FLIDUS) .................... 260 FOLO ................ .................................................. ....................... 264 FRAVILĪ ......................... .................................................. .......... 266 FREDUM / -US ................................... .......................................... 269 GADUM ...... .................. .................................................. ........... 278 GOOSE ..................................... .................................................. .. 281 GENAZ .............................................. ........................................ 283 - MONEY ....... .................................................. ........................... 285 OCTOGELDUS ..................... .................................................. ..... 286 NOVIGELDUS ........................................... .................................. 291 WEREGELDUS / WIREGELDUS ............ .......................................... 306 WIDRIGELDUS ...... .................................................. ................... 331 GLASOUGI ............................. .................................................. .. 333 -HAND ............................................. .......................................... 335 HAISTERAHAND ...... .................................................. ................ 335 HA STEO ................................................. .................................... 339 HAIFTLĪCH ............ .................................................. .................. 340 HERI .............................. .................................................. ......... 341 HOUBITSHAZ ....................................... ..................................... 345 5

(H) REF .............................................. ....................................... HUF 347 ......... .................................................. ............................... 350 -HUNT ................ .................................................. .................... 352 HESSEHUNT ............................ .................................................. 353 LAITIHUNT ................................................ ............................... 356 IRFŪREN ................. .................................................. ................ 359 KAUCHA ................................ .................................................. . 361 KEBAL ............................................... ........................................ 364 CRANE ........ .................................................. ......................... 367 LANGWIT (A) .................... .................................................. ....... 370 LETUS / LITUS, LIDA / LISA ..................... ...................................... 372 MALLUM / -US ....... .................................................. ................... 376 MALLĀRE ............................. .................................................. ... 381 MARAH ............................................. ........................................ 388 MARCHA ........ .................................................. ......................... 394 MARCZAN ....................... .................................................. ........ 400 MORT ........................................ ................................................ 403 MORTHTAUDUS .................................................. ...................... 405 MORGANGEBA .......................... ................................................ 415 MOUTH (I) UM / -US ........................................... ........................... 419 MUNDE- / MUNDIBURD (I) UM / -US ........... .................................. 423 NASTHAIT .............. ..................... .............................................. 426 NASTULA .. .................................................. .............................. 429 PALCPRUST .................. .................................................. ........... 431 PFANT ..................................... .................................................. 436 PŪLISLAC ................................................ .................................. 438 RAUBA .............. .................................................. ...................... 443 RĒHBOC .......................... .................................................. ........ 447 ROZZ ........................................ ................................................ 449 SAIGA .................................................. ..................................... 451 SALA ........... .................................................. ............................ 457 -SCARDĪ ................... .................................................. . .............. 460 LIDISCARDĪ / SCARDLIDĪ ................................ ............................ 461 ŌRSCARDĪ .................... .................................................. ........... 464 SCURIA ..................................... ................................................ 466 SIUSO .................................................. ..................................... 470 6

8. 8.1. 8.1.1. 8.1.2. 8.1.2.1. 8.1.2.2. 8.1.2.3. 8.1.2.4.

-SCALCUS ................................................ .................................. 473 MARA (H) SCALCUS .......... .................................................. ........ 474 SENISCALCUS ........................................ .................................... 478 SKELO ............ .................................................. .......................... 480 SPĪHHĀRI ...................... .................................................. .......... 482 STELZA ...................................... ................................................ 484 STUBA .................................................. ..................................... 486 STUOT ........... .................................................. .......................... 490 STUOTARIUS ...................... .................................................. ..... 492 STUPPARE ........................................... ...................................... 495 SWEIGA .......... ............................... ............................................ 498 TAUDREGIL .... .................................................. ......................... 500 TEXACA ....................... .................................................. ............ 504 TREUDIS .................................... ................................................ 507 TRĪBAN .................................................. .................................... 511 TROPPUS ............ .................................................. ..................... 513 UBARSCRĪTAN ........................... ................................................ 516 VIRSTREDEN .................................................. ............................ 518 WADIUM .................... .................................................. ............. 520 WASILUS ................................... ................................................ 524 WEGALĀGĒN .................................................. ............................ 526 WI NT ................................................. ........................................ 529 WISUNT ........ .................................................. ........................... 530 -WUNT .................... .................................................. ................ 533 FERHWUNT ................................ ............................................... 534 GORA- / GOROWUNT ................................................ ................... 537 HREF (A) WUNT ......................... ................................................. 539 ZURFT ................................................. ...................................... 543 Evaluation .......... .................................................. ................. 548 Inserts: forms and functions ........................... ............... 548 Glossaries and inserts ............................... ................................ 548 language layers ................ .................................................. ... .553 The oldest shift ............................................. ..................... 554 The younger layer ......................... ....................................... 555 The youngest shift ....... .................................................. ........ 556 loanwords ........................................ ...................................... 556 7

8.1.3. 8.1.3.1. 8.1.3.2. 8.1.3.3. 8.1.3.4. 8.1.3.5. 8.1.4. 8.2. 8.2.1. 8.2.2. 8.3. 9. 10. 10.1. 10.2. 10.3. 10.4. 10.5. 10.6.

8

quod Alamanni… dicunt - the marked insertion ............ 557 The marking of vernacular inserts ......................... ..... 557 Insertion procedure in the Lex Alamannorum .................... 559 Determinans vs. determinate .............. ................................... 562 Relationships of meaning and areas of impact ........... ......... 563 Grammatical differentiation ...................................... 566 Technical language ................................................ ............................ 569 The evaluation of Old Upper German ................. ............... 570 Evaluation of the Alemannic manuscripts .................. 572 Evaluation of the Bavarian manuscripts ....... ................. 577 Historical Lexicology: Alemannic People's Law - Alemannic Tribal Lexic? ............................................... 582 results. .................................................. ........................... 585 Lists ..................... .................................................. .. 591 List of Abbreviations .............................................. ............. 591 List of Figures ................................... ....................... 592 List of tables ......................... ...................................... 593 Bibliography .......... .................................................. ... 594 Overview of the manuscripts mentioned in the text ................ 652 Register ...................... .................................................. ........... 655

1. Introduction With the vernacular lexicon and handwritten tradition of the Pactus and the Lex Alamannorum, the present work takes one of the oldest sources of German as its subject. The written fixation of vernacular elements in the Latin legal texts of the Germanic tribes, the so-called Leges barbarorum, forms the earliest layer of vernacular tradition. It is to be set before the Old High German glosses and texts. Nonetheless, the latter are disproportionately better developed: comprehensive reference works as they exist for the text transmission and the Old High German glosses through the Leipzig dictionary of Old High German (KFW.) And Schützeichenel's Old High German and Old Saxon glossary vocabulary (SchGW.) Founded by Karg-Gasterstädt and Frings not (yet) available for the inserts - despite their broad tradition and chronological priority In these vernacular words, a thematic breadth of semantic areas also appears which, for such an early level of German, would not be accessible anywhere else. With terms from legal language, but also from flora and fauna, medicine, animal world and architecture as well as social and warfare, the oldest documents of a Germanic technical language can be proven. With Pactus and Lex Alamannorum, a definable corpus is selected from this complex of sources and opened up and philologically processed in relation to its vernacular inserts and their handwritten tradition. The study includes all sources of Alemannic popular law and thus not only takes into account the 48 codices listed in the edition of the Monumenta Germaniae Historica (MGH LL nat. Germ. 5,1) and considered in the research literature, but also expands the number of known manuscripts to a current total of 60 traditional and 81 documented text witnesses. All vernacular inserts with Germanic etymology are extracted from these and analyzed. This is how the fractional development of the oldest Upper German code of law, which so far has almost exclusively related to inserts of the type “quod Alamanni ... dicunt” - and this only under 9

Recourse to the variant apparatus of the edition, which in many places is incomplete or incorrect, especially with regard to the vernacular word material (Hartmann 1996: 239) -, corrected and completed. For this purpose, the origin and transmission situation of the manuscripts will be examined and sorted anew, and the relationships of dependency for the hitherto neglected text thread B, the Carolingian revision of the Alemannic national law, will be processed. The conception, layout and equipment of the manuscripts are described and evaluated and an answer option is offered to the still controversial question of the relationship between jurisprudence and legal text, practical use and representative character of the manuscripts.

10

2. Early vernacular lexicon The beginning of the written tradition of a German vernacular is dated to the early eighth century. Since then, evidence of words of Germanic origin has been found in the form of glosses which, written in ink or pen, translate, grammatically identify or comment on Latin lemmas 1. The glossing is initially under Anglo-Saxon influence (cf. Glaser 1996: 38) and after a short start-up period it rapidly increases in scope to texts of all literary genera (Bergmann / Stricker 2009: 83 passim). “Before the world of glosses lies in our language tradition that of German words in Germanic laws, the so-called leges barbarorum ”(Baesecke 1950: 1). With the designation "Words of Germanic Laws" Baesecke was the first to define an exclusive genre for this second large pre-literary testimony to words of Germanic origin. 2 Beyerle (1956: 100f.) Calls this form of tradition “quotation words”, Schützeichel (1986) “vernacular words of the leges, capitals and diplomas” and Henkel / Palmer (1992: 16) speak of “insertions”. Seebold (ChWdW8, 62) characterizes the source complex outlined in this way as "the most difficult and most dazzling form of the transmission of vernacular words". He defines the sometimes oldest evidence of vernacular language contained therein as "sprinkles", that is, the use of vernacular words in a foreign language, and in this case that would always mean: in a Latin text. Recently, Prinz (2010) created another concept

In the following, the term lemma will be used as the nominal or basic form of a lexeme if it does not (as in this case) explicitly refer to the lemma-interpretament structure of glossography. 2 For the terms Teutonic Law, Tribal Law, People's Law and Leges barbarorum see Schott 1979: 31. All the designations suggested for the subject in the course of research history have been blamed for a more or less serious deficit; Therefore, the terms are used indiscriminately in the present work, without wanting to draw conclusions about parts of the population and the realities of their origins through the word components of people, tribes or Teutons, but rather to refer to a source type using established names (HRG. III, 690) . 11 1

and added so far last attempt and called the "forgotten words" as inserts. 3 2.1. Old High German Texts, Glosses and Inserts Timely to the Glosses began first around 800 and then from the ninth century onwards, the tradition of Old High German text memorials. The vocabulary contained in these two sources is recorded in the Leipzig dictionary, the large thesaurus of the Old High German language (KFW.) In its entirety, at least as far as the partial volumes have been published. 4 The glosses are comprehensively, with the exception of the supplements, indexed in Schützeichel's dictionary of glosses vocabulary (SchGW.). A comparable comprehensive reference work on the inserts does not yet exist, 5 the vernacular certificates are not or only poorly recorded in their entirety and therefore neither lexicographically nor otherwise adequately evaluated (Bergmann / Stricker 2009: 943) .6 As a result, there is no systematic description of the occurring ones Types of vernacular components of Latin texts that would do justice to the characteristics of the source complex, their forms of embedding, their functions and their scope (Bergmann / Stricker 2009: 943). 2.2. Vernacular words in Middle Latin laws The individual Leges were created within a period of three centuries, between the beginning of the sixth century (the last years of Clovis' reign, 507-511), in which the Lex Salica is dated, and the Aachen Reichstag of 802 (Siems 1992 : 11).Prince's hint was given orally during the conference Crimes, Offenses and Punishments in the Language and Literature of the Middle Ages (Bamberg), 10–12 October 2013. The term insert can be used to match the terminology of glossary research, because just as there are derivations such as glossing and glossing about glosses, you can insert or they can be advertised; an advantage over the inferior (but German-speaking) term Einsprengsel in this respect. 4 Bergmann / Stricker 2007: 41–44 explain the current lexicographical situation and the problems of adequately recording Old High German vocabulary. 5 This has already been the case since Baesecke (1950: 3f.): “The laying-out texts of the Monumenta are largely inadequate: the lack of a corpusculum that would correspond to Steinmeyer's glosses is even more palpable.” 6 For the current state of research, see Chapter 2.4.5. 12 3

Even if the individual tribal rights, especially those that are further apart in terms of time and content, do not form a homogeneous unit, the leges barbarorum will still be referred to as a genus. The legal texts present themselves as a relatively closed text group and are therefore to be understood as one type of text (Schmidt-Wiegand 1991c: 429). The first broad and systematic writing of the vernacular can be seen in the Malberg glosses. In the Salian Franconian law, legal technical terms are introduced by the formula mallobergo ‘at court… ʼ: LSal (D) XXXIII, 2: Si quis ingenua puella occiserit, mallobergo smalcha ledi, solidus C culpabilis iudicetur. (MGH LL nat. Germ. 4,2: 72) If a girl from the class of the free is killed, one is to be sentenced to 100 shillings, this is the girl's money in court

The probably oldest tangible document of Germanic legal history goes back even further with a fragment of the Visigoth Codex Euricianus (König Eurich, 466–486; cf. Siems 1992: 17). It becomes clear that the tradition of the Leges barbarorum extends far beyond the boundaries of Old High German and that Latinity also leads in part to the Merovingian period (Schützeichel 1986: 836). The recording of the Visigothic laws with legal provisions for an increasingly Germanic population (Lex Romana Visigothorum) is a short time lag behind Sal Franconian law. 8 The Lex Burgundionum and Romana Burgundionum as well as the Edictum Theoderici are also likely to date from the first two decades of the sixth century . For the Lex Ribuaria the seventh century is generally assumed today, when Dagobert I (623–

7

The indication of text passages is made up of the reading area, the legacy thread or, in the case of a special handwriting, by handwriting sigla and titulus. The symbols are resolved in the list of manuscripts. The relevant parts are highlighted by the author in bold. German translations are available for longer or difficult Latin passages. 8 Kremer / Schwab: Law and language in the so-called Leges Barbarorum - a database project on the vernacular vocabulary in medieval manuscripts (in press) provide an overview of the temporal relationships. 13th

639) leaves part of a kingdom to his son Sigibert. The Edictum Rothari of the Longobard King Rothari of 643 also falls in the seventh century (cf. Siems 1992: 17-19). The laws of the Alemanni and Bavaria as well as other parts of Lombard law finally originate in the eighth century. Before this written fixation, the mos originally regulated the legal matters, a vetustate consuetudo, sive lex non scripta, as described by Isidore of Seville (Etymologiae V, 3, in: MGH LL nat. Germ. 5,1: 201). Long before the Leges barbarorum was drawn up, the Germanic peoples had a normative order for many areas, which was largely passed down as a reality in oral customary law. Everyday life, especially legal life, took place in a Romance or Germanic vernacular (Buchner 1953: 3). Written cultural documents, on the other hand, are reserved for the language of the church and education, the lingua franca Latin, throughout the Middle Ages and far beyond. The particularity of the text genre lies in the disparity of the two lines of tradition: By converting the formerly oral Germanic legal culture into a location-independent and time-persistent medium, German words are exceptionally found in the Latin framework text (Dilcher 2006: 37). In part, these are due to the communicative deficit between the Latin educational language and the vernacular (Schmidt-Wiegand 1978a: 172), and in part to an ideological positioning of the peoples who oppose the "foreign infiltration of their own Germanic-German legal and value perception" (Siems 2006: 231) adhered to the traditional legal terms of the people of identification, i.e. their own ancestors. A vernacular legal expression often names the term valid for the legal process, for which a Latin expression was not available or not available in sufficient form (Tiefenbach 2009: 960), according to the following model: LAla (B) Tit. LIX, 1: Si quis alium per iram percusserit, quod Alamanni pulislac dicunt, cum uno solido conponat. (MGH LL nat. Germ. 5,1: 116) If someone beats another in anger, for which the Alemanni say blow that leads to a lump, he atone with a shilling. 14th

The German legal term is to be regarded as primary, around which a Latin equivalent has been formed. The expression had to appear as a common criminal offense in the verdict or in the oath, but also served to transfer between the Latin text and the vernacular (Schmidt-Wiegand 1989: 550). Today these fossils of the archaic legal vocabulary provide rare evidence of Germanic lexicons for a phase from which otherwise hardly any written evidence is available. According to Sonderegger (2003: 175–177), the insertion of individual words into Latin texts can be seen as the first step on the way to a written German language; through them the foundation stone is laid for the tradition of the vernacular. 2.3. German vocabulary in the Lex Alamannorum The sources for old Upper German vocabulary can be classified as manageable.9 The historical significance of Pactus and Lex Alamannorum is correspondingly high. Krusch (1924: 333) emphasizes the scarcely assessable value as a legal source and a literary monument; Even before Charlemagne and the historiography that began with his political activity, laws were passed here to a German tribe, with which it rose to a higher cultural level. There is also a broad and easily comprehensible tradition for the source complex. After the Lex Salica with its around 90 sources of tradition, the Lex Alamannorum is the most widely handed down Lex in terms of numbers.10 The Pactus Alamannorum also embodies as the oldest Upper German legal code, one of the most extensive sources of sources of the time. This contains the earliest reliable evidence of Alt Alemannic at all (Bergmann / Götz 1998: 449):

9

With the Old High German Benedictine Rule (around 800, St. Gallen) and the Murbach Hymns (around 810, Reichenau), relatively reliably dated and localized texts for Old Alemannic are available (Bergmann / Götz 1998: 449); linguistic or historical objections must be taken into account for all text monuments of the early period in Old Bavarian (Glaser 1996: 44f.). 10 legal texts from the Roman legal tradition, for example the Lex Romana Visigothorum, come across even more frequently. The Bibliotheca Legum, a manuscript database on secular law in the Franconian Empire (http://www.leges.uni-koeln.de/mss/, last accessed on July 5, 2017) provides an exact list of the tradition of the above-mentioned Leges. 15th

Vernacular

Hss.

Vernacular speakers

Sum of national

Verbatim

(~ complete)

Receipts / Hs.

language documents

A strand

12+111

155

2015

B-strand

37

190

7030

total

50

9045

Tab. 1: Quantitative evaluation of vernacular documents in the Lex Alamannorum

While the Pactus has been handed down in just one manuscript, there are 50 full scripts available for the Lex Alamannorum. With around 155 tokens of vernacular verbal material per handwriting of the traditional line A and 190 tokens for class B, the whole scripts alone result in approximately 9,000 documents for the vernacular that have been handed down through Alemannic law (see Tab. 1). 2.4. Research history A look at the relevant lexicons shows that the complete development of this basic vocabulary is still a work to be done. The difficulties in the reception of legal words with their numerous text variants, which often and strongly differ, were and are so far too great. The source complex has too seldom found its way into historical dictionaries, even though it would be of great importance for linguistic history due to its advanced age. In addition, the archaic legal vocabulary provides the earliest evidence of any German technical language. 12 The language of law is the first and initially only technical language of Germanic antiquity and the Middle Ages. No other language area - besides poetry - occupies such a central position, neither the historiography nor that of the Germanic religion of paganism, and also not the early Christian theory and sermon: “The Germanic legal language is the only language layer within the Germanic Areas left his mark ”(Sonderegger 1962: 271). Especially because of this solitary position11

In addition to the twelve codices usually identified as A manuscripts, the Herolds print (A15 / B15) is a medium of tradition, which is a hybrid of the two lines of tradition. 12 For the general vocabulary as technical language, see Chapter 8.1.4. 16

It is therefore surprising that “the words of the Lex have been neglected by linguistic research” (Tiefenbach 2004: 263). 2.4.1. Reference works The Leipzig Old High German Dictionary (KFW.) Originally provided a separate supplement for the Leges. In the meantime this plan has been abandoned; Due to the foreseeable large effort, the legal words are excluded from the dictionary corpus. Graff lists some selected cues in the Old High German vocabulary (GSp.); the German legal dictionary (DRW.), Rieckes early history of medieval medical terminology in German (FmmF.) and Seebold's chronological dictionary (ChWdW8 / 9) only contain sporadic references. As a logical consequence, there is a lack of knowledge from the Leges barbarorum in all historical grammars, which leads to a considerable gap in standard works such as the Braune / Reiffenstein grammar (2004), but also the dialect-specific works by Schatz on Old Bavarian (1907) and Weinhold for Old Alemannic (1863) concerns (see Stricker / Kremer 2014: 242). Only the reference work of Tiefenbach for the Old Saxon (ASW.) Takes on the affected word material with reference to the respective handwritten findings from the Lex Saxonum. 2.4.2. Editions A fundamental problem with the dictionaries mentioned is based on the fact that - if they take Leges' sources into account - with the exception of Tiefenbach, they only use the editions offered in the volumes of the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, because studying the sources yourself would involve disproportionately more work . For its part, the Monumenta series dates back to the middle of the 19th century, while the younger volumes were produced until the middle of the 20th century. Several editions have been ordered for the Lex Alamannorum at the instigation of the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, which have since been considered relevant for work in historical linguistic research: an older one by Merkel in 1863 (reprint 1965) and 17

a second quarto edition by Lehmann (1888), which was edited in revision by Eckhardt (1966) .13 A third edition, albeit of a much smaller size and with reduced text variants, also comes from Eckhardt (1962). Edition Merkels prints a total of three versions of Alemannic law based on selected manuscripts one after the other. The focus is on the reconstruction of the best possible Latin text, following the interest in legal history. No consideration was given to the holistic transmission of the German words, variants are not recorded in their completeness. There is no distinction in the quality of the individual readings and consequently a reason for the form chosen in the text. The preparation of the early German vocabulary cannot meet modern philological demands. These deficits have been well known since the first edition appeared (cf. MGH LL nat. Germ. 5.1: 2), but this did not lead to an improvement with the second edition: "3828not everywhere [the second edition] is preferable to the first, even if it corrects a lot of its mistakes, and in the evaluation of the Hss. it means a very obvious step backwards ”(Krusch 1924: 324). The judgment is still valid a century later if random checks of the text variants on offer show that this edition contains more errors than the rest of the Leges editions, insofar as the variants are often unevenly and inadequately recorded and handwriting symbols were sometimes simply mixed up or confused (Hartmann 1996 : 239). The latest edition goes back to Schott (1993a), who ordered a facsimile edition with translation and commentary for the Sangaller A1 manuscript (St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek 731). 2.4.3. Monographs Previous individual studies on Leges' vocabulary focused on definable subject areas, groups of people or facts and examined a defined word field within the Traditi13

References to the text of the Alemannic Rights always refer to this younger edition of the Monumenta series. 18th

on the legal texts mostly of all Germanic tribes. Among the representatives of early research, the work by Baesecke (1950) on “The German words of Germanic laws” and Krusch's “New research on the three Upper German Leges: Bajuvariorum, Alamannorum, Ribuariorum” (1924) must be mentioned by name. More recently, Ruth Schmidt-Wiegand in particular has appeared with numerous publications on the source complex (1977, 1989, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c, 1997, 1998a, 1998b, 1999 and 2006). Her students, who all pursue a common concept of onomasiology and semasiology, move in their tradition, a "research on designations that derives the meaning of words from the semantic context of the laying as well as from the social, historical, cultural context of the period of study, the period in from which the Leges arose and had validity, wants to derive ”(Olberg 1983: 26). The works by Dagmar Hüpper-Dröge on weapons (1981), by Anette Niederhellmann on doctors and medicine (1981, 1983) and by Gabriele von Olberg on social classes and classes (1983, 1991) are primarily to be mentioned here. They too are only based on the edition of the Monumenta editions; here, too, the broad tradition of the source area, which is difficult to grasp in its entirety, has a disadvantageous effect (Stricker / Kremer 2014: 242). The same applies to Höffinghoff's "vernacular animal designations in the early medieval leges" (1987). An exception is the work by Tiefenbach “Quod Paiuuarii dicunt - Das Altbairische Wortmaterial der Lex Baiuuariorum” (2004), which draws on three selected Old Bavarian manuscripts, and Haubrichs' contribution to the Alemannic “quod Alamanni dicunt” (in print14), in which the entire A tradition of Alemannic law is taken into account, as far as these are introduced by "quod Alamanni ... dicunt". In 2012, under the direction of the historian Karl Ubl in Cologne, an online database was set up on the manuscripts of secular law in the Franconian Empire as part of the DFG project "Studies on the History of the Franconian Law of the Carolingian Age" (2007-2010)

14

We would like to thank the author for the kind provision of the manuscript. 19th

15 It expands Hubert Mordek's manuscript catalog “capitularium regum Francorum manuscripta” (1995) and in this respect offers a useful tool for legends research. 2.4.4. Lex Alamannorum As far as Alemannic is concerned in particular, authoritative works have been written by Kottje (1979: "On the scope of the Lex Alamannorum"), whose overall focus is on Upper German Leges (1986: "The Lex Baiuvariorum"). In the recent past, Alemannic research has been closely associated with the name Clausdieter Schott. In addition to the facsimile edition made by him (1993a), he published numerous individual studies on the topic, of which the contributions to “Pactus, Lex and Law” (1974) and “To the validity of the Lex Alamannorum” (1988) must be mentioned. His widely promulgated theory on the Lex Alamannorum as a forgery of the Reichenau monastery community (see Chapter 3.3) received little approval from the research community, but it received a lot of attention and recognition.According to the professional orientation of a lawyer, the focus of interest is on legal and cultural-historical issues, not on historical linguistics. From a linguistic point of view, some semantic fields have been processed from the above monographs, which also take into account words from the Lex Alamannorum (see above). In addition, the work of De Rosa should be mentioned, who looked at the inserts of Alemannic law introduced with “quod Alamanni… dicunt” (1999) and carried out basic research with his contribution to the transmission of the Lex Alamannorum (2001), on which this work has built could be. Most recently, Haubrichs looked at the Alemannic tribal law and also explained the words of the text tradition A introduced with the noun gentis Alamannorum in a mask with a short description of the handwriting (in print).

15

http://www.leges.uni-koeln.de/ (last accessed on July 5, 2017). 20th

2.4.5. Status quo and objectives At the instigation of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, Rudolf Schützeichel worked on a dictionary on the vernacular words of the Leges barbarorum in addition to the Old High German dictionary on text monuments and glossary vocabulary in the 1960s. Work in Bamberg has been continued since 2008. Since 2013, a DFG project has been carried out under the direction of Stefanie Stricker on the “digital recording and indexing of the vernacular vocabulary of the continental West Germanic Leges barbarorum in a database ”.16 It seems reasonable to conclude that Tiefenbach's judgment of a neglected treatment of the Leges is meanwhile outdated and individual areas well developed (FastrichSutty 2001: 269–280). From a legal historical perspective, Schott even reported that “all text-critical and historical possibilities have been exhausted” (1987: 1879). From a linguistic point of view, the verdict is currently still more pessimistic despite the Bamberg project: Almost all of the Leges word research work is in the tradition of Lehmann, Eckhardt and Krusch. They differ in the focus and argumentation from different professional perspectives - they are, however, similar in some fundamental errors such as the recourse to the editions of the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, which is why the deficits established there cannot be overcome. The philological indexing of text witnesses through the technical progress in the field within the last ten years with high-resolution digital copies, some of which are freely accessible on the Internet, has gained in possibilities. As part of this work, not only could all known sources of Alemannic law be seen, but also previously unknown manuscripts could be examined and numerous already considered reevaluated. The same applies to the readings of the vernacular words contained therein. 16

The legit database of the Bamberg research project can be reached at the address http://legit.ahd-portal.germ-ling.uni-bamberg.de/ (last accessed on 05.07.2017). The database on vernacular words in the Leges barbarorum is currently only accessible with password protection (http://db.legit.ahd-portal.germ-ling.unibamberg.de/, last accessed on 05.07.2017). 21

This work makes the entire vernacular vocabulary contained therein accessible using all comprehensible manuscripts of Alemannic law. In the first part of the thesis, all sources of tradition are collected and assessed in a manuscript panorama; In the second part of the work, the vernacular glossary, the inserts are extracted from the manuscripts of the Lex Alamannorum and analyzed. The word research not only takes into account the metatextually marked words of the category "quod Alamanni ... dicunt", but all words with Germanic etymology. The amount of word material considered is denser overall and per manuscript, and the result is more valid as a whole. The aim of the study is to offer a holistic view of the vernacular on the one hand and the traditional sources on the other hand, in each case with recourse to the handwritten source. The results are evaluated in the last part of the thesis for the historical grammar. For this purpose, a historical classification of the Alemannic legal code and an evaluation of the legal manuscripts against the background of early medieval book culture is carried out, in order to then philologically process the tradition carriers and the inserts contained therein.

22

The Lex Alamannorum17 3.1. The early Alemanni Written sources about the earliest Alemanni are handed down exclusively through reports by Roman historians, which are based on individual impressions and are correspondingly subjectively colored. The oldest evidence of a barbarian people known as Alamanni dates back to the year 289.18 In the eulogy in honor of the co-emperor Maximianus Augustus (approx. 240-310) the panegyrian praises Mamertinus: 3.

5 (1): Quid vero? Statim, vixdum misero illo furore sopito, cum omnes barbarae nationes excidium universae Galliae minarentur, neque solum Burgundiones at Alamanni sed etiam Chaibones Erulique, viribus primi barbarorum, locis ultimi, praecipiti impetu in has provincias iruissutem, nperis nobis tisi tisi tisi do adfuisses? (Panegyrici Latini: 8f.) 5 (1) But what [then]? As soon as that wretched rage came to a stop, all barbarian peoples from all over Gaul threatened with extinction, not only the Burgundians and Alemanni, but also the Chaibons and Heruli, the first among the barbarians in strength, the most remote by origin. When they invaded the provinces with a stormy attack - what god could have brought us such unexpected salvation if you had not helped?

Archeology provides real-life facts about the original settlement area of ​​Germanic tribes and the starting point for their migration. Finds from the field of militaria, ceramics and jewelry show Alemannic customs in the entire area between the Elbe and Oder, from the east coast of Holstein to Bohemia (Steuer 1998: 31). 19 From there an unstable group migrates

17

In the following according to HRG. I (Schott 2014, 862–869) and RGA. XVIII (Schmidt-Wiegand 2001: 201-205). 18 For the discussion about the first mention of a people called Alamanni see Castritius / Springer 2008. 19 The discovery of Elbe Germanic elements does not mean, however, that the Elbe regions must be assumed as the origin of all tribal groups. If a group of people in the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes area had already called themselves Alamanni in 213, this would suggest a pre-existence of the gens Alamannia there and would speak against the migratory movement and conquest of the Elbe Germans (Castritius / Springer 2008: 447). For this discussion, see Castritius 1990: 71–84 and Spors-Gröger 1991: 63. The question of the origo gentis alamannorum is outlined by Drinkwater 2007: 43–66 and 213–496. 23

different tribal associations to the southwest, which increases in size like an avalanche as it progresses. Around 260 the Alamanni broke through the Limes and penetrated as far as Gaul, later over the Alps into the Italian heartland and along the Danube to the east (Fried 1987: 348). Since the end of the third century they have for their part supported the defense of the empire by securing the Roman border wall against other Germanic tribes, and in some cases even against other Alemanni. This cohors Alamannorum, which was organized on the Rhine-Danube-Limes, was located on a territory which, derived from its immigrant settlers, was called Alamannia (Steuer 1998: 276). Unfortunately, cremation customs of the Germanic peoples prevent a closed archaeological site, which could lead to complete clarity of the situation. However, reference finds can be used to infer the trade relations of the third to fifth centuries (Steuer 1998: 301). This shows the extent of the expansion of the Alemannic dominion and the Alemannic trade routes: In the fifth century, the Alemanni occupied Alsace as far as the Vosges ridge, Switzerland as far as the Alps, Vorarlberg and the country eastwards as far as the Lech (Geuenich 1994: 168). 20 With the battle of Zülpich around 496/7, the expansion efforts come to an end: They are defeated in the fight against the Rhine Franks and Sal Franks under Clovis and subsequently come under the protectorate of Theodoric the Great, whereby they forfeit their political responsibility (Fried 1987: 349). The Cannstatt Blood Court (746) finally marks the end of the Alemannic duchy and completely incorporated the Alemanni into the Franconian empire (Zotz 2003: 137). The centers of Alemannia are the early founding of monasteries, among which the abbey on the Lake Constance island of Reichenau (725) and above all St. Gallen (719) play a central role whose cultural radiance cannot be overestimated for the time being. The southern Franconian monastery of Weißenburg (around 660) and the eastern Franconian Fulda (744) also have a strong influence. The exact geographical coverage of the borders of an Alemannia has so far been impossible due to the lack of reliable sources (cf. Geuenich 2012: 164f.). 24 20

3.2. Pactus and Lex Alamannorum The oldest version of the Alemannic popular law is the Pactus Legis Alamannorum.21 The original version is only available in the Paris manuscript BN. lat. 10753 of the ninth century and split into five fragments due to secondary leaf losses, of which fragments III and IV follow one another directly. 22 Because of his relatively large age difference to the Lex, his own advanced age and in view of his unmistakable Frankish relations, the pactus must be placed at the beginning of the seventh century (Amira 1960: 57). Its purpose is the legislative incorporation of the Alemannic ducat into the entire Franconian empire. In the prologue of the Bavarian rights, the Moyses Gentis, it says: 23 Theuderichus rex Francorum, cum esset Catalaunis, elegit viros sapientes qui in regno suo legibus antiquis eruditi erant. Ipse autem dictante iussit conscribere legem Francorum et Alamannorum et Baioariorum unicuique genti quae in eius potestate erat, secundum consuetudinem suam, [...]. (MGH LL nat. Germ. 5,2: 202) When Theodoric was at the Diet at Châlons, he selected wise men who were instructed in the laws of his kingdom. And he himself dictated the laws and ordered that the law of the Franks, Alemanni and Bavaria be written down, and that of every people under his rule, and each according to his own custom.

Text borrowings from the Recensio Guntchramna of the Pactus Legis Salicae indicate that the author of the legal text Chlotharius Rex named in the Ingress can be identified as Chlothar II (613–629 ).24 A second codification is the more recent Lex Alamannorum, an expanded new version Alemannic popular law, which in its original 21

For the Pactus manuscript see A12 in Chap. 5. Thus the pactus is actually made up of four fragments; For a long time, however, research adopts Lehmann's mistaken terminology (Wattenbach / Levison 1953: 30). 23 It is true that the descriptions in the prologue must not be given unreserved faith (RGA. XVIII: 305-315), but it provides historically significant information for the motivation and legislative legitimation of the legal compilations. 24 Cf. Amira 1960: 57. His namesake Chlothar I (511–561) and also Chlothar IV (717–719) cannot be excluded as responsible (Schott 1993a: 17). 25 22

This version goes back to Duke Lantfrid. Its emergence is estimated in accordance with the reign of Lantfrid between 712 and 730 (Amira 1960: 58). Only two manuscripts mention his name in the introitus and have thus retained their original form (Lantfridana version in manuscripts A1 and A2). After intermittent outrage against the usurpers and the re-submission of Alemannia to Frankish suzerainty around 730, Lantfrid could have met the damnatio memoriae, so that in the introductory formula in almost all manuscripts his name was deleted and changed to Chlothar as the legislator from the Introit of the Pactus (pseudo- Chlothariana version) .25 What is certain is that a Franconian revision of tribal law took place between 730, the year Lantfrid died and before 743.26 The term post quem is concluded from the fact that the Alemannic Lex was already available when the Lex Baiuvariorum was drawn up (Rivers 1973: 271-277) and this in turn must have originated in 744 at the latest, as the phrase iudice terrone culpabilis sit suggests, which is contained in a Freising document from 744 and alludes to the consideration of Title I, 2 of the legal text (Amira 1960: 58) .27 Particularly in the area of ​​wound penalties there is agreement Evidently the Recensio Lantfridana with the Lex Baiuvariorum (Fastrich-Sutty 2001: 83). Both the Lex Baiuvariorum and the Lex Alamannorum also have a strong content-related influence on the law of the Visigoths (Landau 2004: 8), so that in addition to a linear dependency, a common model has also been discussed in recent research (Fastrich-Sutty 2001: 291).

25 The contamination from the Ingress des Pactus and the introduction of the Lantfridana versions has also been proposed as an explanatory model. On the question of identifying the legislature, see Schott 1974: 137ff. 26 The backgrounds for writing an Alemannic lex have always been presented in different ways. Schott 1993a: 12–17 provides an overview of the positions in the discussion about the creation of the legal text. 27 For a discussion of the origin of the Lex Baiuvariorum and a possible relationship between the Upper German laws, see Landau 2004: v.a. 6–15, note 15. 26

3.3. Alemannic people's law - Reichenau monastery law? Schott (1988: 80), contrary to the Opinio communis, sees the Lex Alamannorum as a forgery of the Reichenau monastery and dates its creation to the period between 730 and 740. With his forgery hypothesis, he ties in with earlier research by Karl Brandis (1890). How probable the theory of Alemannic law is as a surrogate of the Benedictine monks is primarily determined by the relationship between Duke Lantfrid and the monastery.28 Although his name can be found in the list of donations when the monastery was founded (Geuenich 2008: 653), his role is controversial. As the Franconian Bastille, the monastery could also have acted as an adversary against him and undermined his authority with its 'own law'. Its mention among the donors could be just as much a political-literary topos as the reference to the supposedly assembled court when the law was drafted: "ubi fuerunt 33 duces et 33 episcopi et 45 comites" (LAla A1, Incipit). If the Lex Alamannorum should be a work of the Reichenau friars, then it can of course only have been written after the monastery was founded in 724. Admittedly, the prominent position of the church donation in the first titulus of the law meant a hitherto unheard of interference in the private asset structure in favor of the church. The transfer of real estate for the clerical area testifies to the inviolable protection of church property (Beck 1965: 57). In several manuscripts this first article (LAla Tit. 1,1: "si quis liber res suas vel semet ipsum ad ecclesiam tradere voluerit, nullus habeat licentiam contradicere ei [...]") even slips into the incipit formula and is then equivalent to Introit in an effective capitalis. The scriptorium of the Reichenau monastery community will certainly have been so powerful at the time of its creation that it could have done the writing and dissemination of such a text. It is also not absurd that the friars redesigned a pre-existing text, at least in passages, in their favor. The decisive factor is that

28

As already Gförer (1865: 184): “If the time sources now fully report that Abbot Bishop Pirminus was promoted by him to Reichenau shortly before Karl Martel proclaimed the Alemannic law [...], then one must necessarily draw the conclusion, this one Pirminus was the main assistant to Karl Martel when that law was introduced. ”27

The question as to which elements of the Lex represent the legislative substrate and what exactly the fake superstrat consists of.29 However, there are still no reliable indicators for Schott's thesis, so that it can neither be confirmed nor dispelled. 3.4. Content and structure of the Lex Alamannorum The structure of the Lex Alamannorum is strictly structured and shows a well-planned concept. The text is preceded by an incipit formula and in most manuscripts a capitulatio as a table of contents. In the Lantfridana versions A1 and A2 in particular, the introit deviates considerably from the rest of the tradition; the lex was decided by Lantfrid in an Alemannic state parliament, whereas in all other sources of tradition King Chlothar appears as the legislator (HRG. III, 863f.): LAla (A1) Incipit: IN CHRISTI NOMINE INCIPIT TEXTUS LEX ALLAMANNORUM, QUI TEMPORIDO FILIO GODOFRIBUS LANFRIDO FILIO RENOVATA EST. LAla (A3 / 4) Incipit: Incipit lex Alamannorum, quae temporibus Hlotharii regis una cum principibus suis, id sunt 33 episcopi et 34 duces et 72 comites, cum cetero populo [constituta est]. (MGH LL nat. Germ. 5.1: 62)

The legal text covers three subject areas: church affairs, duke affairs (de causis, quae ad ducem pertinent) and popular affairs (de his, qui saepe solent contingere in populo). Schott in particular emphasized that the position of the church in the Lex was unprecedented and that it would be “privileged beyond the usual level” (HRG. III, 864f.). It deals with the donation of assets to the church (land or movable property), theft from the church or violent crimes against church members or on church soil. The paragraphs allow revealing insights into the social structure of the early Middle Ages. 30 For crimes against a bishop, punishments are threatened that are similar to those stipulated for the duke. 30 Detailed analyzes of the social order can be found in Schott (1978) and especially Olberg (1983, 1991). 28

The amount of the fine. Church members are under the special protection of the Lex and the penance in the event of being injured or killed corresponds to the double punishment of a free Alemanni. The ducal matters contain a collection of mixed items: territorial interests are taken into account, property law, theft fines, forgery of documents and similar offenses. Particularly with the Longobard Edictum Rothari, great similarities can be demonstrated in this section (HRG. III, 865f.). The third and last complex consists of a catalog of penalties, the oldest part of Alemannic law, which is also passed on through the Pactus. The principle of compensation stipulated therein replaces an archaic system of feud and retaliation functionally by “buying off the right of revenge” (Schmidt 1995: 25). Violent crimes such as injuring different parts of the body through to killing, selling people inside and outside the duchy, inheritance claims and marriage law regulations are extensively listed and assessed. Here, too, the amount of the penalty is finely divided into social classes. In descending hierarchy, the wergeld for a free one (ingenuus) is fixed at 240 shillings, a middle alemanne (medius Alamannus) is to be atone with 200 shillings and the lower class finally with 160 shillings. Semi-free (liti) are differentiated into several groups (primi, mediani and minofleti); the lowest layer is formed by the unfree (servi). Service staff and craftsmen with greater responsibility (pig or sheep herders and grooms) also experience a legal upgrade. In Alemannic law, which is a peculiarity of these penances, women are always valued twice. The highest possible penalty results from the killing of a noble Alemannic woman of 480 schillings. Crimes in connection with breeding and farm animals as well as the damage or destruction of houses and supply buildings (from stealing a millstone to setting fire to the neighboring house) are also dealt with in detail. The sometimes detailed descriptions of the criminal offenses provide vivid evidence, particularly of the handling of animals (cf. Höffinghoff 1987) and the settlement structure of the early Alemanni (cf. Dölling 1958). 29

4. The Leges manuscripts - book treasure or object of daily use? Some striking cuts in the relationship between the German vernacular and its written fixation go back to Charlemagne. New paths have also been treaded since Karl with regard to jurisdiction and its codification. In 802 he issued the Capitulare missorum generale: "Ut iudices secundum scriptam legem iuste iudicent, non secundum arbitrium suum" (MGH Capit. 1,33,26). By observing the principle of nulla poena sine lege scripta and a related material legal term, early 'basic rights' are defined. However, there has long been a dispute about whether the written law could actually be understood as a legal book in use. Kottje (1986: 15) remains in the picture when he claims that the users of the codices have not yet been identified and that the question of the practical legal benefit would be a process of circumstantial evidence. Traces of use, formal elaboration and content composition are among these indications with which evidence of possible usage situations could be given. Kottje goes on to say “that the Leges manuscripts, like most of the early medieval legal manuscripts, are predominantly unadorned, so they should probably only be used, and that they generally have a handy, small format”. McKitterick (1980: 13) also judged the Leges manuscripts that they were "intended from the outset to serve as handbooks of reference for the ministering clergy". Schott (1988: 101, 95), on the other hand, categorically denies the Leges any statements about historical everyday life, significance for judicial practice and general practical relevance. The Lex Alamannorum is nothing more than “the program and integration symbol of the Franconian empire”. Its value would not lie in practical use but rather in the prestige of the legislator, as legitimation of Germanic claim to power and proof of the equality of Germanic gentes with gens Romana (Schott 1988: 98). But without any practical utility - how can one justify that the legal manuscripts were so widespread in the Carolingian era (Ubl 2014b: 76)? What would be necessary, for example, for Lupus de Ferrière to compile a legal collection for Eberhard von Friuli or for the earliest library catalogs of the monasteries to be listed as Zen30

did medieval life each record a copy of the most important tribal rights? 4.1. Unadorned utility manuscripts

Fig. 1: Paris, BN. Lat. 4404, f. 198v – 199r 31

To speak of “unadorned manuscripts” (Kottje 1986: 15) among the legends of the Leges barbarorum would not do justice to the matter. The Germanic rights undoubtedly point to the admirable book culture of the early and high Middle Ages. The Paris Codex BN. Lat. 4404 (A9) comes down to one of the most magnificent Leges manuscripts of all (see Fig. 1). Mordek (1995: 457) calls it “perhaps the most impressive early medieval Hs. Of the worldly31

http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8426042t/f410.item; (last accessed on July 5, 2017); http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8426042t/f411.item (last accessed on July 5, 2017). 31