How did breccias form on the moon
The cut-out sheet to explain EBBE and FLUT
Back to the home page of the Iffens environmental station back to nature and the Wadden Sea
Content of this page:
Illustration of the paper model /
Explanation in English /
Declaration in German /
Explanation in Spanish /
The four pages as a print template /
best re-translation /
Bulldog and Pinscher /
Ebb and flow in the soup plate /
Tasks and suggestions for schools and study groups
We made this cut-out sheet in 1984 and have become very well known not only on the coast.
The previous edition is 80,000 pieces. You can get the cardboard template from us in Iffens at a price of 0.50 euros each.
(We have finished packages with 200 pieces).
There are now a lot of good explanations on the Internet, including short films. Please look in a search engine.
The idea for this bow is from Wolfgang. The elaboration has been refined in many courses. Änne Bultmann made the drawing and some large models, including the picture with the Low German joke. The Burhave civic association built a large model on its own, and some replica models are available in some Wadden Sea information centers
The description is printed in German on the cut-out sheets.
So here is the text, first in English and then in German and then in Spanish. As naturally as day and night come, as full moon and new moon alternate, so here on the coast come high and low tide. These all come from the interplay of sun, earth, and moon.
Us humans (but especially the sea creatures and plants) have witnessed the rhythms of the tide for thousands of years, and have adapted ourselves to suit.
- Many birds can feed in the watt mud only at low tide.
- Sand banks are left at low tide on which seals lazily bathe themselves in the sun.
- Mud crabs come out at high tide, as they no longer need to fear the hungry birds.
- Fish shoal under the full moon.
- The salt marshes are washed over by new moon and full moon and receive a fresh abundance of food and minerals from the sea.
lt is impressive to watch the rise and fall of the waters over the Watt. Just stay 4 - 6 hours on the salt meadows near a creek; the water comes and goes amazingly fast.
People of the coast live with the rhythm of the tide. Here in Butjadingen we have a proverb, The high tide brings, low tide takes. Children are born with the high tide, and people die with the low.
There are many old stories of the sea and the coast, of storm floods and the reclamation of land told from generation to generation during many changes of tide. Some of them are actually true. And unfortunately the newer stories about damage to the north sea - through the pollution and filth we have dumped there have also come true. For the seals it is a fatal reality.
So that we can better understand what happens on the coast and in the north sea between the high and low tides, we develop here at the Umweltstation, Iffens, games, models, methods and arguments for living in and with nature and the environment.
One result is this cut out model.
EXPLANATION OF THE MODELHow tides are formed
The earth and the moon attract each other. The water on the earth's surface can move and follows the lines of these forces. On one side of the earth water is attracted by the moon and generates a little "mountain" with theoretically 90 cm of height.
But the system of the two bodies in the sky is a dynamic one. The two rotates round the turning point, wich is the center of gravity and is located near the surface of the earth.
Due to the rotation there is a force at that side of the earth, which is far awaw from the rotating point and in opposite to the moon. Here is a second mountain of water formed.
Move the moon around the earth. (Really the moon takes 28 days for one cycle.) Now put one penny (pfennig) on the side of the earth away from the moon and as it turns the penny will fly away. This is just how the water forms it's shape along the lines of the force.
The results in a mountain of water on each side of the earth.
Daily Changes of the Tides
Iffens is located where the green dot is on the cut out earth. In one day the earth rotates once, and Iffens arrives back where it started. In one day Iffens comes twice under a "water mountain" - high tide. In between these times is low tide. As only the side of the earth near the sun is light (the sun comes in parallel lines from the far left) Iffens is once dark and once light in one turn - one day and one night have passed.
If you want to know the time of high tide or sunrise or sunset, you have to take the "sunray" as a clock. Turn the earth in a position, where Iffens is nearest to the sun an point the sunray to iffens in its 12 a clock position. Turn the earth while hold the sunray. You can see the time, passing, 24 hours in one turn.
Reasons for the Spring Tides
The sun comes in parallel rays from the left. Bring the moon behind the earth. The side of the moon that is facing the earth is also lit by the sun. We can see all of it - this is fullmoon. In our model sun, moon and earth are all in the same plane - the earth would cover up the moon in a lunar eclipse. This happens in the sky only very rarely.
The water "mountains" are increased by the large attraction force of the sun, so the high waters get higher and become a spring tide. The same happens at new moon.
Variations of Tide Times
Put the moon to, for example, 4 days after full moon. Turn the earth so that the sun is directly over Iffens. Here it is now midday. Take a sun ray as a time keeper and hold it firmly indicating this position. The earth turns a little further (hold the moon still for now). At 15:45 it is high tide at Iffens, at 22:00 it is low tide. At 3:45 it is once again high tide and at 10:00 it wood be once again low. But the moon has also moved in this time - it is one day later, 5 days after new moon. After moving the moon on, reset the sun ray time keeper. Now the high tide is at 4:30 pm.
6 days after new moon it is at 5:15 pm etc. These tide times are schematic and explain the principle. In the real North sea, however, there are additional factors which regularly change the tide times of the different places.
The daily changes of the tide times can vary between 45 and 55 minutes.
First color in the different parts: the sun and the timer ray yellow, the tides and the spring tides blue, and the earth also colored.
The page with the sun remains uncut and is the underlay on which we mount the model. From the other page cut out the hour indicator, the moon, the earth and the earth - moon rotating disc. Use the nail scissors to make small holes in the earth - moon disc, the earth, the moon and the underlay, as marked by the crosses. Next attach the earth and the moon to the disc with paper fasteners. Now you can bring the whole thing onto the underlay and fix it in position with the other fastener. The sun ray must remain mobile. So that you dont lose it, tie it to the top left corner of the underlay with the thread. lt is now ready to try out.
The source of the idea:
Our director in Butjadingen, Mr. Reese, told us in the Autunm of 1986 that many Smmer visitors would like to have the origins of the tides dearly explained. This stimulated the development of this model by the eco-workers in 1987. Since then we have had much fun and a lot of success with it, not only with holiday guests and residents of the half-island but also with school classes and at exhibitions .
As natural as day and night, as full moon and new moon alternate, there are ebb and flow on the coast. All of this comes about through the regular interaction of the sun, earth and moon.
We humans, but especially the marine animals and plants, have experienced the rhythm of ebb and flow for thousands of years and have adapted to it.
- Many birds can only eat in the mudflats at low tide.
- Seals lie lazily on the sandbanks at low tide and soak up the sun.
- Mud shrimp walk under the water at high tide, so they don't need to be afraid of the hungry birds.
- Fish swarm when the moon is full.
- At full moon and new moon, the salt marshes are flooded and receive a new boost of nutrients from the sea.
It is impressive to watch the rise and fall of the water in the mudflats. Stay on the safe salt marsh near a creek in the same place for 4-6 hours; the water comes and goes amazingly fast.
We people on the coast also live with the rhythm of the tides. Here in Butjadingen, an old chatter is called: "The tide brings it, the ebb takes it." Children are born at high tide and die at low tide.
Many old stories of the sea and coast, of storm surges and land reclamation came into being between ebb and flow. Many of them are also true.
And unfortunately the new stories about the damage in the North Sea - from the dirt we pour into it - have come true. Already a deadly truth for many seals.
So that we can better understand what happens on the coast and in the North Sea between ebb and flow, we develop games, models, methods and arguments for life in and with nature and the environment in the environmental education station in Iffens.
One result is this cutout sheet.
EXPLANATIONS ON THE MODEL1. Formation of the flood mountains
Earth and moon attract each other. The water on the earth's surface is mobile and follows the forces of attraction. A flood mountain is formed on the side on which the moon stands. Exactly in the opposite direction, a centrifugal flood mountain forms: Rotate the moon around the earth. The pivot point is the common center of mass. (The moon actually needs 28 days for one rotation.) Now put a penny on the side of the earth facing away from the moon, it will fly away when it rotates. The water also follows these centrifugal forces and forms a flood mountain.
2. Daily alternation of ebb and flow
Iffens is where the green dot is marked on earth. The earth turns around once in a day, and Iffens is back at the same point. During the turn, Iffens hiked under a flood mountain twice, with ebb in between. Since only the side of the earth facing the sun is light (the sun comes in parallel from far left), it also became light and dark once during the rotation - a day and a night have passed.
3. Origin of the spring tides
The sun comes from the left with parallel rays. Bring the moon behind the earth. The side of the moon facing the earth is also illuminated by the sun at the same time, we see it in its entirety, that is a full moon. In our model, the sun, earth and moon are exactly in one plane, the earth would cover the moon. This rare event can also happen in space: a lunar eclipse. The flood mountains are amplified by the mass attraction of the sun. The tide then rises higher, it is spring tide. Something similar happens at a new moon.
4. Daily shift in tide times
Set the moon to z. B. 4 days after the full moon. Rotate the earth with Iffens so that the sun is directly over Iffens, it is now 12 noon here. Now take a sunbeam as a clock hand and hold it in this noon position. The earth continues to rotate (we stop the moon briefly). At 3:45 p.m. it is high tide in Iffens, and low tide at 10 p.m. High tide at 3:45 a.m. and ebb again at 10 a.m. But now the moon has also moved, it is one day later, 5 days after the full moon. After the moon has advanced, readjust the noon position of the clock-hand sunbeam.
Now read the flutter date for Iffens one day later: 4.30 p.m. Six days after the full moon (readjust the sun pointer !!) the result is 5:15 pm etc. These tide times are correct schematically and explain the principle. For the North Sea, additional conditions apply, which cause regular shifts in the tide times for each location. The daily change in tide times also fluctuates between 45 and 55 minutes.
First paint the arch: the sun and the clock hand beam yellow, the high tide mountains and the spring tide mountains blue and the earth a little colored too.
Half of the arch with the sun remains uncut and is the base on which we mount the model. Cut out the clock hand, the moon, the earth and the earth-moon turntable from the other half.
Use the small nail scissors to make a gap in the large earth-moon turntable where the areas above the flood mountains are hatched.
Now put a spreader clamp through the center of this disc. Do not attach yet !! First you have to attach the earth and moon - also with brackets - to the marked places on this disc. Now you can attach the whole thing to the base arch where it has the cross. The sunbeam must remain mobile. So that you don't lose it, tie it to the top left corner of the base sheet with a thread.
Ready to try.
The impetus for this game:
Our spa director in Butjadingen, Mr. Reese, reported in autumn 1986 that many summer guests would like to have the origins of ebb and flow clearly explained.
Based on this suggestion, the present model was developed in the eco-internship in 1987. So far we have not only had a lot of fun with holiday guests and locals on our peninsula, but also for school classes and also at exhibitions, this model is very successful.
MAREA BAJA Y ALTA
Naturalmente, como en el día y la noche, la luna llena y la nueva se alternan proporcionándonos el fenómeno de las mareas altas y bajas en la costa. Esto surge de la interacción entre el sol, la tierra y la luna. Los humanos y los animales nos hemos interesado por el ritmo de las meras desde hace miles de a os, intentando comprenderlo y adaptándose a éste.
- Muchos pájaros se alimentan solo en las marismas cuando la marea esta baja.
- Los bancos de arena que se forman con la marea baja son el sitio perfecto para que las focas y leones marinos se tumben a tomar el sol.
- Peque os cangrejos se desplazan por debajo de la superficie del barro, teniendo así nada que temer de los pájaros.
- Bancos de peces se alimentan durante la marea llena.
- Cada marea alta las marismas son renovadas con abundancia de comida y minerales procedentes del mar.
It impresionante el observar la rápida subida y bajada del mar, cuando sube la marea, el agua sube de nivel muy rápido. Aquí en Butjadingen, la gente del lugar tiene un antiguo dicho "The tide brings it, the ebb takes it" (La marea alta trae, la marea baja se lleva) Nacerán ni os con la marea alta, muere gente con la marea baja.
Muchas antiguas historias del mar y la costa, de tormentas e inundaciones, de reclamaciones de tierras ganadas al mar han sido transmitidas de generación en generación. Algunas son realmente ciertas. Desgraciadamente también exist nuevas historias sobre da os causados por el hombre en el mar del norte como polución y suciedad. Esto es para las focas y animales del mar del norte una cruda realidad.
Podrás entender mucho mejor que sucede en la costa durante la marea baja y alta, gracias al trabajo desarrollado durante más de 35 a os en el Centro Medio Ambiental de Iffens: juegos, modelos, métodos de estudio y argumentos para vivir para y con la naturaleza.
The resultado de este trabajo es este modelo recortable.
EXPLICACIÓN DEL MODELO
1. Formación de las mareas.
La luna y la tierra se atraen. El agua en la superficie de la tierra se mueve y fluye atraída por estas fuerzas. En una parte de la tierra, el agua es atraída por la luna y genera una peque a "monta a de agua", en la otra parte opuesta de la tierra también se forma esta monta a de agua. Rotamos en nuestro modelo la luna y la tierra (realmente la luna necesita 28 días para rotar la tierra), el centro de rotación es el centro de gravedad de ambos. Ahora ponemos un céntimo en el sitio de la tierra contrario a la luna, cuando giramos la tierra, the céntimo sale disparado debido a la fuerza centrífuga
2. Cambios diarios en la marea.
A new model hemos marcado la situación de Iffens con un punto. En la duración de un día, la tierra rota una vez sobre su eje. Durante un día sucede la mera alta dos veces en Iffens. Durante el resto del día la marea está baja. Si quieres saber la hora aproximada de la marea alta, amanecer o atardecer, debes usar el "rayo de sol" como aguja del reloj. Gira la tierra hasta que Iffens esté en el punto más cerca del Sol, coloca el "rayo de sol" hacia Iffens en la position de las 12 en punto. Ahora gira la tierra mientras sostienes el rayo de sol, así podrás ver la hora, pasando 24h horas en un giro.
3. Motivos de las mareas vivas.
Como podemos ver en nuestro modelo, the sol llega a la tierra en rayos paralelos. Ahora lleva a la luna detrás de la tierra. El lado de la luna que da de cara a la tierra está también iluminado por el sol. Podemos ver toda la superficie de la luna, esto significa que es luna llena. A new model of the luna, the sol y the tierra están en un mismo plano; la tierra cubriría toda la luna en un eclipse lunar. Esto pasa en la realidad muy raramente. Las mareas aumenta por la fueraza de atracción del sol dando lugar a las mareas vivas. Esto también sucede durante la luna llena.
4.Variaciones en el horario de las mareas.
Sitúa la luna, por ejemplo cuatro días después de la luna llena. A continuación gira la tierra de forma que Iffens esté en frente de los rayos de sol, ahora serían las 12 del mediodía.A continuación, sitúa el rayo de sol como aguja del reloj y sujétalo en este punto marcando las 12.Ahora, rota la tierra y se puede ver que aproximadamente a las 4 p.m. se produce la marea baja y a las 22 la marea alta. Si seguimos rotando a las 4 se produce la marea llena otra vez y alas 10 h. marea baja otra vez.
La luna no se ha movido, la debemos rotar un día más, quedando cinco días para la luna llena. Al mover la luna, el rayo solar indica la hora a modo de aguja. Ahora nos mostraría las 16.45 h in Iffens, a seis días de la luna llena 17.30 y así sucesivamente. Este esquema sólo aclara el modelo, no es cien por cien fiable. Tenemos que saber que en el mar del norte exist otros factores que pueden cambiar el curso de las mareas. Las variaciones en el horario de las mareas pueden variar entre 45 y 55 minutos.
MODO DE ELABORACIÓN DEL MODELO
Material necesario: Tijeras, ijeras afiladas, 3 encuadernadores y un hilo de aproximadamente 20cm de largo.
Primero pintamos la cartulina: el sol y los rayos de sol de color amarillo. Las monta as de agua azul. Colorea también la tierra. La parte de cartulina donde está el sol será donde montaremos nuestro modelo. En la otra parte, recortamos la aguja del reloj, la luna y la tierra. Recorta con unas tijeras peque as la parte sombreadaza en las monta as de agua. A continuación agujera el punto medio con un encuadernador, no lo cierres todavía! Primero debes también agujerear la luna y la tierra por el medio de modo q puedan rotar. Ahora podemos cerrar los encuadernadores. El rayo de sol debe quedar suelto y lo atamos con el hilo a la esquina izquierda de la cartulina. Y asi queda listo para probar.
ORIGEN DE ESTA IDEAEl mandatario en temas de turismo en Butjadingen, Mr Reese, nos comento la idea oto o de 1986, dándonos a entender que con un modelo como este podríamos explicar el funcionamiento de las mareas a nuestros invitados. Después de esta sugerencia, este modelo fue realizado durante el Ökoprakticum de 1987. Este modelo no sólo ha servido para ense ar a invitados y vecinos sino que también has sido de gran utilidad para escuelas y exposiciones.
Our cut-out sheet is widely used on the coast and on the internet. So I found a source (URL unfortunately not archived) with the English text and had it translated back with the altavista machine.
The result could trigger a new sport,.
Tide, Ebb and FloodWe want to inform you of the origin of ebb and flood. So natural, that it is getting light and it is getting dark, like full moon and new moon change, in this manner there are ebb and flood here near the coast. All this is caused by a regular interaction of sun, earth and moon. Mankind, but especially the marine creatures and marine flora have experienced the rhythm of ebb and flood for thousands of centuries.
It is impressive to observe the rising and falling of the water in the Wadden Sea. Stay 4-6 hours on a safe salt meadow near a mud flat in the same place; the water comes and goes amazingly fast. We human beings near the coast also live with the turn of the tide. In Butjadingen, which is a village near the North Sea, an old saying is:
Explanation for the model
Tide, ebb and flowWe would like to inform you about the origin of Ebb and flood it. So naturally it gets light and it gets darkness, like change of full moon and new moon, in this way there is ebb and floods here near the coast. All of this is caused by a regular dependence of the sun, earth and moon. Mankind, but especially marine creatures and marine flora, have experienced the rhythm of ebb and inundated for thousands of centuries.
It's impressive, the rising and falling of the water in the Wadden Sea. Stay 4-6 hours on a safe salt marsh near a mud that is shallow in the same place to watch; the water comes and goes amazingly fast. We humans near the coast also live with the tide turning. In Butjadingen, which is a village near the North Sea, there is an old saying:
Explanation for the model
In the daily newspaper taz there is a nice section last questions. There was on 13/14. March 1999 answered the question:
Joseph screw from Neustadt knows the answer:
The moon does not run around the earth like a chain dog on a chain around a stake, but earth and moon run like two chained dogs around a common stake. The two chains form a straight line. The earth corresponds to a bulldog on a short chain, the moon to a pinscher on a long one. The stake is at the point of the center of gravity of both dogs. (In the earth-moon system, this pivot point lies within the earth 0.73 earth radii from the center of the earth.)
The bulldog's stomach contents are now pushed outwards in the curve like a sip of water. The centrifugal force that causes this is slightly greater than the gravitational force of the pinscher trying to pull the stomach contents towards the stake. This creates a bulge in the bulldog stomach on the outside of the curve. This is the first flood mountain.
On the inside of the curve, the stomach contents are also pushed outwards by centrifugal force. However, the pinscher is now considerably closer, and thus the attractive gravitational force is greater than the centrifugal force acting outwards. The interaction of these two forces results in a force in the direction of the stake. This is how the second flood mountain is created.
Since the earth now rotates once every 24 hours (here the model with the two dogs fails), the two flood mountains move around the earth once in 24 hours.
Joseph screw, Neustadt
Ebb and flow in the soup plate
You know that:
There is soup for lunch and suddenly there is a big stain on the fresh tablecloth. Nobody wants it to be.
Resourceful physicists have now found that it is not the clumsy children but the laws of physics that explain this phenomenon.
Just like in the North Sea, there are tides in the soup plate.
That this has not been found out earlier is simply because
that no one sits in front of a full soup plate for 6 hours to wait for a tide.
Disturbances in the gravitational continuum caused by neutrino storms (emitted by solar flares) lead to locally very limited tidal phenomena.
These can be calculated as follows:
H = y * [(m1 * m2) / rx] * # * The result indicates the maximum tide (in millimeters) where:
y = 6.673 * 1011 m? 3 / kg * 5delta2
# = Viscosity of the soup (enter 1.4 for clear and 2.86 for lentil soup)
= position of the moon (8.6 for half moon and 2.5 for full / new moon)
m1 = mass of the moon (7.343 * 18y22)
m2 = mass of the soup (density * volume)
rx = distance Iffens moon (384 488 km)
This formula was invented by Dr. Ma. Nuell for the Iffens environmental station.
Jobs at ebb and flow for study groups - or just for fun.Depending on age and school level or previous knowledge, the following questions can be discussed or tried out: 1. Color in the earth disk. Sometimes with imagination, the continents are blue etc. 2. Topic mass focus. Two dancers hold hands and turn. The center of mass is the fulcrum 3. Try the moon orbit and moon phases. How much bright side of the moon we see when. 4. Does the moon spin around itself? To explain ? (The moon was once part of the earth's mass and is therefore always facing the earth with the same side. 5. Try the rotation of the earth and the sun. When does the sun rise where. When does it set where? Height of the sun above the horizon? 6. Attraction = Centrifugal force otherwise the moon falls on the earth or it disappears in space. 7. Attraction - centrifugal force. Therefore the high water mountains for the moving water masses. (Physically without continents approx. 90 cm) 8. Tides even without the rotation of the earth. What if the earth were to move Turns slower or faster? How is the hour defined? 9. Try out tide times Table with days after full moon / 2 times at high tide 10. Spring tides if line sun - earth - moon or sun - moon - earth 11. Both spring tides must be the same 12. At Nipptide, the distance between the moon and the earth changes due to the attraction of the sun stand between the flood dates. 13. Using a tide calendar, enter the flood difference times between two days in a diagram. The diagram patterns are repeated in the lunar cycle. 14. Explain the sickle shape of the moon with waxing and waning with a ball and a lamp 15. Explain lunar eclipses and solar eclipses. 16. Questions
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