Vadakkumnathan Temple in 1930 which franchise

Synagogue of the Israelite Temple and School Association for the 10th district of Favoriten

Reconstructed exterior view of the Humboldt Temple
Image name Humboldttempel Außen.jpg
Caption Reconstructed exterior view of the Humboldt Temple
Image source Bob Martens
Image rights
  • 10., Humboldtgasse 27
  • 10., Humboldtplatz 7

Currently no conscription number has been recorded for this structure!

The synagogue in Vienna 10, Humboldtgasse 27, commissioned by the Israelite Temple and School Association for the 10th district of Favoriten, formed the social, religious and cultural center for the Jews of the 10th district of Vienna from 1896 to 1938. The synagogue was inaugurated in 1896 and destroyed during the November pogrom on November 10, 1938.[1]


The following associations were affiliated with the Israelite Temple and School Association for the 10th district of Favoriten:

  • Israelite women charity for the Xth district
  • Humanitarian association for the 10th district of Vienna
  • Children's detention center of the Zionist district section Favoriten[2]

Association history of the Israelite Temple and School Association for the 10th district of Favoriten

The Israelite Temple and School Association for the 10th district of Favoriten[3] was founded in 1872.[4] The association owned two properties: The Synagogue, Vienna 10, Humboldtgasse 27, and the residential and foundation house, Vienna 10, Humboldtgasse 25.[5]
Benjamin Scher, who lived in Vienna 10, Viktor-Adler-Platz 13 in 1938, was the last chairman of the association.[6] The dissolution of the Israelite Temple and School Association for the 10th district of Favoriten, the deletion from the register of associations and its incorporation into the Israelite religious community took place - with the abolition of legal personality - by the standstill commissioner for associations, organizations and associations in the course of 1939. That Assets of the association were assigned to the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde with deduction of a construction levy and administration fee and with the withdrawal of the real estate.[7]

History of the Jewish women's charity for the Xth district

The founding of the association was approved by the municipal department 49 on July 17, 1925 under the name of the Jewish Women's Charity Association for the Xth District. The president was Anna Mandel, residing in Vienna 10, Gudrunstraße 142, and the secretary was Frieda Jetter, residing in Vienna 10, Gellertplatz 10. According to the statutes of 1925, the purpose of the association was: "(...) needy fellow believers, especially infants, children, sick people and women who have recently given birth, help in whatever form it appears to be necessary. (§ 2) This purpose is to be achieved 1. through material help, 2. by taking on custody, 3. by giving advice and assistance of any kind. 4. by joining all Jewish charities (...) ". Primarily the residents of the 10th district should benefit from the services of the association (§ 3). There were full members, honorary members, founders and supporting members (§ 5). According to the general assembly on May 19, 1930, the income was composed of membership fees, donations and fundraising. The expenditures concerned gift and grocery packages on Jewish holidays, health resort contributions, stays in the country for children, "free places for young people within the organization 'Children and Women in the Country" ", food and milk donations and amounts to pay for rent and heating material.[8]
The dissolution of the Jewish women's charity for the Xth district, the deletion from the register of associations and its incorporation into the welfare center of the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde took place - with the abolition of legal personality - by the standstill commissioner for clubs, organizations and associations in the course of 1938. That Assets of the association were assigned to the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde after deduction of the construction levy and administration fee. The last chairwoman was Anna Mandel.[9]

History of the Humanities Association for the 10th district of Vienna

The humanitarian association for the 10th district of Vienna was founded in 1874. The purpose of the association was: 1. "The support of needy people who have their normal place of residence in the 10th district"; 2. to provide "ritual assistance (...)" to the members of the association in the event of death in their families (§ 3). The association took care of all official channels after a death and ensured that the ritually prescribed presence of ten people was guaranteed at the burial (§ 4), and that prayers were held every morning and evening in the deceased's apartment during the first week of mourning (§ 6, Articles of Association 1901).[10]
The last chairman was Albert Schläfrig, who lived in Vienna 10, Quellenstrasse 91 in 1938. The dissolution of the Humanitarian Association for the 10th district, its deletion from the register of associations and its incorporation into the welfare center of the Israelite religious community was carried out - with the legal personality being revoked - by the standstill commissioner for Associations, organizations and associations in the course of 1938. The association's assets were assigned to the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde after deduction of the construction levy and administration fee.[11]

Association history of the children's detention center of the Zionist district section Favoriten[12]

According to the files of the standstill commissioner, the kindergarten was launched in October 1933 and had the purpose of "toddler occupation by a kindergarten teacher". Martha Brandweiner, who lived in Vienna 10, Favoritenstrasse 147, was chairwoman in 1938.[13] From the planning documents of Municipal Department 37, it is clear that the kindergarten in the courtyard wing had already existed in 1928.[14] In the course of the dissolution and restructuring of the clubs by the standstill commissioner for clubs, organizations and associations, it was determined that this organization was not considered an independent club.[15] In June 1938 the kindergarten still had ten children enrolled.[16]

Reconstructed interior view of the Humboldt Temple

Building history of the synagogue of the Israelite Temple and School Association for the 10th district of Favoriten

A building committee was founded in 1886 to build the synagogue of the Israelite Temple and School Association for the 10th district of Favoriten and in 1893 a corner plot of land in Vienna 10, Humboldtgasse 27, Humboldtplatz 7 was acquired with donations and loans. According to measurements from 1938, the plot was 645.24 m2.[17] Jakob Gartner was won over as an architect. The plans "to build a new Israel temple for the temple building association in the Xth districts of Humboldtgasse 27 and Humboldtplatz 7" were approved by the municipal district office for the 10th district on December 2nd, 1885.[18] The inauguration took place on September 6, 1896 just after the Jewish Day of Atonement.[19] In December 1896, the Israelite Temple and School Association for the 10th district of Favoriten announced to the municipal district office for the 10th district that the building was "completed", the "toilets" and "staircase railings (...) carried out according to regulations", the "prayer chairs (...) are set up "and only the" paint "is missing and you ask for the final" usage consensus ".[20] The somewhat irregularly laid out square building site offered two free-standing sides for the building (south and west front). The irregularity could be compensated by a wedge-shaped arrangement of stairs, vestibule and cloakroom. The construction time was only two years from 1895 to 1896.[21] The solemn "laying of the keystone" took place on May 13, 1898 in honor of the 50th anniversary of the reign of Emperor Franz Joseph I.[22] The prayer room formed a regular square parallel to Humboldtplatz with 428 seats for men. There was room for 277 women in the gallery. Four dome stands covered with stucco carried the galleries and at "roof height" the mighty dome with an "octagonal basic shape".[23] The synagogue had central projections on the west and south fronts and two large onion domes on the western front as a continuation of the side projections. In total, the prayer room was crowned by eight onion domes, "which, as a continuation of the corner pillars, gave the impression of minarets". One entered the synagogue through three arched main entrances in the Humboldtgasse and got through a vestibule into the prayer room of the men.[24] and via stairs to the women's galleries. On Humboldtgasse on the left were the offices and the porter's lodge and on the right the cloakroom. In the courtyard on the left the "temple of everyday life" was erected, which could be entered via a "passage" from the synagogue. There was an organ above the Torah shrine on the women's gallery, in front of which there was space for the choir. Another impressively designed entrance gate, crowned by the two panels with the ten commandments, was on Humboldtplatz.[25]

November pogrom

The fire diary of the Vienna fire brigade noted the start of the fire service on November 10, 1938 at 10:20 am and described the site as "loose masonry": "The temple was blown up: surrounding houses examined, no structural damage found".[26] Karl Smejkal (born January 27, 1906 in Vienna), employee of the municipality of Vienna, who was indicted before the Vienna People's Court on account of § 3, § 4, § 6 and § 7 of the War Crimes Act and § 10 and § 11 of the Prohibition Act, was involved in the desecration of the Synagogue Vienna 10, Humboldgasse, Humboldtplatz involved in the looting of furniture and appropriation of a red carpet through his participation (p. 5 and p. 13). During the questioning, the defendant said the following: "On the afternoon of November 9, I received the order as an SA man to take part in the clearing up of the Jewish temple on Humboldtplatz. When I was moving the facility, I saw a no longer new 6m I asked the district leader Dörfler, who allowed me to take it away. I took it to my apartment a few days later by means of a car. After 2-3 days a house search took place, with who found the carpet and I was commissioned to return it to the NSV. " (P. 112 f.) Karl Smejkal was sentenced to two years imprisonment in 1946 for mistreatment of Jews and looting as well as denunciation (verdict).[27]
The demolition of the synagogue ruins began at the end of 1938. On December 1, 1938, the property department of the standstill commissioner, Referent König, placed the order with city architect Anton Simersky, Vienna 10, Laxenburger Strasse 7: "I hereby confirm the agreement made with you, according to which you will Demolition of the Jewish Temple Humboldtgasse. You will not receive any cash compensation for the demolition, but the materials will become your property. The construction site must be completely cleaned of rubble, so that the future owner cannot make any complaints in this regard. (...) It is important to me that the work is finished as soon as possible. " On November 10, 1938, the Gestapo brought the association's files and interest accounts from the synagogue's chancellery to the cellar of the Rothschild palace.[28] On April 17, 1939, the former porter of the synagogue, Othmar Svejkovsky, who had lost his apartment and income as a result of the destruction, turned to Gauleiter Josef Bürckel with the request for compensation: "If I allow myself today, Mr. Gauleiter, this way To make a request, it is because I have no further advice on my matter (...) In order not to hand my family over to hardship and misery, 13 years ago I was forced to take up the post of porter in the Vienna X Temple and remained in this position until it was destroyed. The close contact with the Jews in particular meant that I became a passionate anti-Semite in a very short time and I became a member of the NSDAP as early as 1933. The exposure of my position among the Jews and theirs Organizations forced me to interrupt my activity in the party during the prohibition period, but I reported immediately after the exemption in accordance with their decree it immediately [sic!] my entitlement to the NSDAP (...). Then the day of the final annihilation of the temple came and with it my home and my existence. (...) Unfortunately, a large part of my property, such as laundry, clothes, etc. - I may say it freely - was stolen, sometimes in ignorance that it belonged to me, thrown on the street and immediately abducted ".[29] In December 1939 the building police department of the administration of the Reichsgau Vienna reported to the Ministry for Internal and Cultural Affairs that the synagogue at Vienna 10, Humboldtplatz 7 had been "demolished".[30] The current owner, Richard Vojta, as the building contractor and owner of the property, had an "enclosure plank on the building lines" erected for the former synagogue in 1940.[31]

Ownership structure: Aryanization and restitution of the synagogue

The property was owned by the Israelite Temple and School Association for the 10th district of Favoriten until 1938. The property was withdrawn from the association and became the property of Aufbaufond Vermögensverwaltungs Ges.m.b.H. The property department of the standstill commissioner estimated the value of the "building plot" at 6,500 Reichsmarks. After "removing the remains of the wall and leveling it to the level of the street", the value was estimated at 10 to 12 Reichsmarks per square meter.[32] On November 8, 1939, a purchase agreement was concluded between Aufbaufond Vermögensverwaltungs Ges.mbH and Friedrich Vojta, 1949 commercial employee, residing in Vienna 10, Laubeplatz 4, for one quarter, and Richard Vojta, 1949 businessman, Vienna 10, Schelleingasse 4, for three quarters . The purchase price was 8,000 Reichsmarks. The property was given back to the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde as the legal successor to the Israelitische Tempel- und Schulverein for the 10th district of Favoriten in 1948 and in 1954 the purchase agreement between the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde and the EMKA - Wirtschaftsgenossenschaft von Wiener Molkereien, Dairies and milk wholesalers who built a new dairy in Vienna 10, Humboldtplatz 7. In 1954 a house was built, and in 1956 the Association of Friends of Condominium became the owner.[33]

Ownership structure: Aryanization and restitution of the house

The first one-story, then four-story house was owned by the Israelite Temple and School Association for the 10th district of Favoriten until 1938. The plans were submitted in 1884 and approved by the Vienna City Administration on June 12, 1884. The inn of the innkeeper Leo Karl, including his wine cellar, and a shop were located on the ground floor of this house.[34] Leo Karl applied to the standstill commissioner for the "purchase of the property as a long-term goal" of his life: "The acquisition of this house is synonymous with securing my existence as an innkeeper in this house. (...) I only notice that under the second conscription number 766 is a one-storey wing located in the courtyard. The ground floor of this wing was used by the Jews as a winter temple because it was easier to heat. For me this ground floor would be very suitable as a garage ". On December 15, 1938, the purchase agreement was concluded between the Aufbaufond Vermögensverwaltungs Ges.m.b.H and Leo Karl, and on April 25, 1939, the property rights were incorporated in favor of Leo Karl. The purchase price of 32,536.56 Reichsmarks went to the standstill commissioner for clubs, organizations and associations.
On December 16, 1938, the property department of the standstill commissioner prepared a report on the condition of the property at Humboldtgasse 25: The house, which was around 30 years old in 1938, had four storeys with a basement and was in "good condition". In 1939, Leo Karl had the hall on the ground floor, which was obviously used by the Israelite Temple and School Association for the 10th district of Favoriten, converted into a "barrel storage room" for his wine cellar. He converted the "everyday temple" into a "storage room for a passenger car" and two storage rooms by dividing rooms.[35]
In 1949, the Restitution Commission at the Regional Court for Civil Law Matters in Vienna issued a decision to the applicant, the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wien, as the legal successor to the Israelitisches Tempel- und Schulverein for the 10th district of Favoriten, which had not justified itself again.[36] The provision was described as "not feasible". For this, Leo Karl had to hand over the property in Vienna 5, Siebenbrunnengasse 30 "free of encumbrances" to the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde. In November 1946 the property was valued at 42,500 schillings.[37]

Important rabbis and cantors

From 1889, the association employed Rabbi David Löwy, who gave the ceremonial address at the inauguration on September 6, 1896. Aron Levi Mandl also acted as rabbis in the 1920s and Rabbi Albert Weiner from 1929 to 1938.[38] The last head cantor was Josef Schlesinger, who lived in Vienna 10, Humboldtgasse 25 in 1938. After his release, he turned to the standstill inspector with a request for clearance from the proceeds of the property, as he and his 67-year-old wife are completely destitute were.[39]

Commemoration

Three commemorative signs commemorate the synagogue and its destruction:

swell

  • Archive of the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde after 1945, B 3 / AD and B 11 / AD
  • Archive of the Vienna Fire Brigade Museum, Fire Diary 1938, Part II
  • Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People (CAHP), A / W 1573.1
  • Municipal Department 37 - Area Group South, Plan Archive, KG Favoriten, EZ 764 and EZ 766
  • Austrian State Archives, Archives of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, IV Ac 31: A 10/3, box 556
  • Austrian State Archives, Archives of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, IV Ac 31: C 6, box 559
  • Austrian State Archives, Archives of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, IV Ac 31: G 11, box 560
  • Austrian State Archives, Archives of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, IV Ac: L 19, box 564
  • Austrian State Archives, Archive of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, König Division: Folder 5, Box 972
  • Austrian State Archives, Archives of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, König Division: Folders 23 and 23a, Box 973
  • Vienna City and State Archives, M.Abt. 119, A6: 22874/1939
  • Vienna City and State Archives, M.Abt. 119, A32: 7922/1925
  • Vienna City and State Archives, M.Abt. 119, A32: 1370/1932
  • Wiener Stadt- und Landesarchiv, M.Abt 119, A41: 10th district, number 407 and number 479.
  • Vienna City and State Archives, M.Abt. 635, A3 / 10 - building police, 10th district, 1st row of single rooms: KG Favoriten, single room 766
  • Vienna City and State Archives, M.Abt. 635, A11 / 10 - Statics: 1st row: 10, Humboldtgasse 25-27

literature

  • Pierre Genée: Vienna Synagogues. Vienna: Löcker 2014, pp. 93-95
  • Bob Martens / Herbert Peter: The destroyed synagogues of Vienna. Virtual walks. Budapest: Mandelbaum Verlag 2009, pp. 113-122
  • Elisheva Shirion: Memorial book of the synagogues and Jewish communities of Austria. Ed. From the Synagogue Memorial, Jerusalem. Vienna: Berger-Horn 2012 (Synagogues Memorial Books Germany and German-speaking Areas, 5: Austria), p. 76 f.

Left

Individual evidence

  1. ↑ Bob Martens / Herbert Peter: The destroyed synagogues of Vienna. Virtual walks. Budapest: Mandelbaum Verlag 2009, pp. 113-122.
  2. ↑ There is no association record on this in the Vienna City and State Archives.
  3. ↑ There is no association record in the Vienna City and State Archives.
  4. ↑ Elisheva Shirion: Memorial book of the synagogues and Jewish communities in Austria. Ed. From the Synagogue Memorial, Jerusalem. Vienna: Berger-Horn 2012 (Synagogues Memorial Books Germany and German-speaking Areas, 5: Austria), p. 75.
  5. ^ Austrian State Archives, Archive of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, Referat König: Folder 23a, Box 973.
  6. ^ Austrian State Archives, Archive of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, IV Ac 31: A 10/3, box 556.
  7. ^ Austrian State Archives, Archive of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, IV Ac 31: A 10/3, box 556.
  8. ↑ Vienna City and State Archives, M.Abt. 119, A32: 7922/1925.
  9. ^ Austrian State Archives, Archive of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, IV Ac 31: G 11, Box 560, and Vienna City and State Archives, M.Abt. 119, A32: 7922/1925.
  10. ↑ Vienna City and State Archives, M.Abt. 119, A32: 1370/1932.
  11. ^ Austrian State Archives, Archive of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, IV Ac: L 19, Box 564.
  12. ↑ There is no association record in the Vienna City and State Archives.
  13. ^ Austrian State Archives, Archive of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, IV Ac 31: C 6, box 559.
  14. ↑ Municipal Department 37 - Area Group South, Plan Archive, KG Favoriten, EZ 764: Decision of the Municipal District Office for the 10th District, March 23, 1928.
  15. ^ Austrian State Archives, Archive of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, IV Ac 31: C 6, box 559.
  16. ↑ Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People (CAHP), A / W 1573.1.
  17. ^ Austrian State Archives, Archive of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, Referat König: Folder 23, Box 973.
  18. ^ Municipal Department 37 - Area Group South, Plan Archive, KG Favoriten, EZ 766.
  19. ↑ Pierre Genée: Vienna Synagogues. Vienna: Löcker 2014, pp. 93 and 95; Elisheva Shirion: Memorial book of the synagogues and Jewish communities of Austria. Ed. From the Synagogue Memorial, Jerusalem. Vienna: Berger-Horn 2012 (Synagogues Memorial Books Germany and German-speaking Areas, 5: Austria), p. 76.
  20. ↑ Vienna City and State Archives, M.Abt. 635, A3 / 10 - building police, 10th district: 1st single row: KG Favoriten, single bedroom 766.
  21. ↑ Bob Martens / Herbert Peter: The destroyed synagogues of Vienna. Virtual walks. Budapest: Mandelbaum Verlag 2009, pages 113 and 117.
  22. ↑ ANNO - AustriaN Newspapers Online: Die Neuzeit, May 13, 1898.
  23. ↑ Pierre Genée: Vienna Synagogues. Vienna: Löcker 2014, p. 93.
  24. ↑ Pierre Genée: Vienna Synagogues. Vienna: Löcker 2014, p. 93 f.
  25. ↑ Municipal Department 37 - Area Group South, Plan Archive, KG Favoriten, EZ 766.
  26. ^ Archives of the Vienna Fire Brigade Museum, Fire Diary 1938, Part II.
  27. ^ Wiener Stadt- und Landesarchiv, Volksgericht, A1: Vg 4 Vr 3472/1945.
  28. ↑ Austrian State Archives, Archive of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, Referat König: Folder 23a, Box 973.
  29. ^ Austrian State Archives, Archive of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, IV Ac 31: A 10/3, box 556.
  30. ↑ Vienna City and State Archives, M.Abt. 119, A6: 22874/1939.
  31. ↑ Municipal Department 37 - Area Group South, Plan Archive, KG Favoriten, EZ 766: Notification of the municipal district office for the 10th district, January 12, 1940, and notification of the district administration for the 10th district, November 16, 1940.
  32. ^ Austrian State Archives, Archive of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, IV Ac 31: A 10/3, box 556.
  33. ↑ Bob Martens / Herbert Peter: The destroyed synagogues of Vienna. Virtual walks. Budapest: Mandelbaum Verlag 2009, p. 122; Vienna City and State Archives, M.Abt 119, A41: 10th district, number 479; Vienna City and State Archives, M.Abt. 635, A11 / 10 - Statics: 1st row: 10, Humboldtgasse 25-27; Austrian State Archives, Archives of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, König Division: Folder 23a, Box 973.
  34. ↑ Municipal Department 37 - Area Group South, Plan Archive, KG Favoriten, EZ 764.
  35. ↑ Municipal Department 37 - Area Group South, Plan Archive, KG Favoriten, EZ 764: Notices from the district authority Favoriten, January 30, 1939 and March 16, 1939.
  36. ↑ 59 RK 29/48; Act no longer exists.
  37. ^ Wiener Stadt- und Landesarchiv, M.Abt 119, A41: 10th district, number 407 and archive of the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde after 1945, B 3 / AD and B 11 / AD.
  38. ↑ Elisheva Shirion: Memorial book of the synagogues and Jewish communities in Austria. Ed. From the Synagogue Memorial, Jerusalem. Vienna: Berger-Horn 2012 (Synagogues Memorial Books Germany and German-speaking Areas, 5: Austria), p. 76.
  39. ^ Austrian State Archives, Archive of the Republic, Standstill Commissioner Vienna, IV Ac 31: A 10/3, box 556.