What does subcortical cystic change growth

Heads of state | Pathology | Tumors


・ Overview (5)

- initiation

- latency period

- PhD

- progression

- invasion and metastasis

・ Initiation (3)

- Induction of DNA damage (↑ oncogene / ↓ tumor suppressor genes) by a genotoxic carcinogen (so-called initiators)

- The affected cell irreversibly transforms into a potential tumor cell which, however, does not yet grow in an uncontrolled manner

- DNA damage is not transferred to the daughter cells and can be corrected by DNA repair enzymes.

・ Latency Period (1)

- Time between initiation and promotion

・ Promotion (2)

- Cocarcinogens lead to an increase in the proliferation of the initiated cell

- DNA damage can be passed on to daughter cells

・ Progression (1)

- As a result of clonal reproduction and expansion of the transformed cell, a malignant tumor develops with irreversible autonomy.

・ Invasion and Metastasis (2)

- Due to the loss of the differentiation antigens on their surface, the tumor cells lose their “feeling of belonging”.

- detach themselves from the tissue association and settle in other tissues.

Benign tumors

・ Definition (4)

- locally limited

- grow slowly, displacingly and expansively

- Often surrounded by a connective tissue capsule that clearly separates it from its neighboring tissue and usually enables complete surgical removal.

- Infiltration of neighboring structures / systemic spread does not take place

Benign tumors
・ Differentiation (3)

- well differentiated (similar to the mother tissue)

- homologous tissue

- monomorphic cells (all cells have the same degree of differentiation)

Benign tumors
・ Cell changes (6)

- hardly any cell atypia
- Nuclei and cells monomorphic
- euploid DNA
- regular chromatin distribution
- real plasma-core-relation
- low mitotic activity

Malignant tumors

・ Definition (4)

- grow quickly

- can infiltratively and destructively grow into neighboring structures

- Can spread along conduction pathways, penetrate the lymphatic and bloodstream and form daughter tumors (metastases) away from their place of origin.

- can therefore only be completely resected in the early stages.

Malignant tumors

・ Differentiation (3)

- dedifferentiated (no resemblance to mother tissue)

- heterologous tissue (cells with different degrees of differentiation)

- "colorful cut surface"

Malignant tumors

・ Cell changes (9)

- numerous cell atypia
- nucleus and cells polymorphic
- polychromatic nuclei
- polyploid / aneuploid DNA
- irregular chromatin ("salt and pepper aspect")
- shifted plasma-nucleus ratio in favor of the nucleus (dyskaryosis)
- high mitotic activity with atypical mitotic figures
- crush artifacts (weakened cell cytoskeleton)
- Basophilia of the cytoplasm (accumulations of endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes)

Semimalignant tumors

・ Definition (5)

- grow slowly

- but behave malignantly at their place of origin (can invasively and destructively penetrate their surroundings)

- metastasize only extremely rarely or not at all. - Histological uniform cell appearance, palisade-shaped cell arrangements and few mitoses.

- high tendency to recur after surgical removal.

(- e.g. basalioma or basal cell carcinoma)

Borderline tumors

・ Definition (1)

- Dignity cannot be clearly determined histologically

(- e.g. some thyroid adenomas)

Stages of tumor development

・ Overview (4)

- precancerous lesions

- Precursors of malignant tumors

→ Intraepithelial neoplasia (dysplasia)

→ leukoplakia

→ Carcinoma in situ (Cis)

- Malignant lesions

→ Microinvasive carcinoma (early carcinoma)

→ Metastatic / invasive carcinoma

- Tumor-like lesion

Precancerous lesions

・ Definition (1)

- Tissue changes that are associated with an increased risk of degeneration.

Precancerous lesions
・ Classification (2) (table)

- facultative precancerous diseases

→ Risk of degeneration <30%

→ long period of time between occurrence of the precancerous condition and degeneration

- obligatory precancerous diseases

→ Risk of degeneration> 30

→ short period of time between occurrence of the precancerous condition and degeneration

Intraepithelial neoplasia (dysplasia)

・ Definition (3)

- Potentially reversible tissue malformation that deviates from the original tissue at the histological and cellular level in response to chronic stimuli

- The fewer cell atypia, the lower the degree of intraepithelial neoplasia (and vice versa)

- High grade intraepithelial neoplasia represents a serious change and is therefore one of the facultative precanceroses.


・ Definition (4) (image)

- Focus-shaped change in the squamous epithelium, which leads to a whitish, non-wipeable change in the surface epithelium in response to chronic stimuli

- occurs mainly on the mucous membrane in the mouth and throat, esophagus, genitals and urinary bladder

- Histological characteristics are hyperkeratosis, excessive horn formation (nucleated horny scales), hyperplasia of the basal cell layer and possibly lymphocytic stroma infiltration

- If it is accompanied by dysplastic changes (evidence of cell atypia), it is one of the facultative precanceroses.

Carcinoma in situ (Cis)

・ Definition (3) (image)

- non-invasive malignancy (in situ) is limited and cannot yet metastases.

- histolopathologically a highly atypical epithelium

- no invasive growth (basement membrane is not broken, the tumor grows purely intraepithelially)

Microinvasive carcinoma (early carcinoma)

・ Definition (3)

- Invasiveness limited to the mucous membrane of the affected organ

- Since they have broken through the basement membrane, early carcinomas (e.g. carcinoma in situ) can metastasize.

- With timely treatment, very good prognosis

Tumor-like lesions

・ Definition (1)

- have the morphological appearance and behavior of a tumor, but do not arise from an autonomous new tissue formation (aka pseudotumor)

Tumor-like lesions
・ Epulis (3)

- Cell structure consisting of granulation tissue (= granular cell tumor), which arises as a reaction to chronic inflammation (inflammatory-reactive granuloma)

- develops in the gums and on the alveolar process

- tendency to relapse after extraction

Tumor-like lesions
・ Myositis ossificans (1)

- Osseous metaplasia of the BGW of the skeletal muscles, which arises as a reaction to chronic stress and appears as a rapidly growing “tumor”.