How To Do Vashe Solution
If you do decide to build, you will definitely need a solution of cement in the job. Just buying cement is not enough, because before construction, gray powder should become a real solution. Water, sand and cement - these are all components, but not everything is as simple as it seems at first glance. Let's understand how to properly make a cement solution.
- History of the origin of cement
- Process of cement production
- Application of cement in construction
- Manufacture of cement mortar with your own hands
- Cement at home
- Preparation of materials
- Prepare components
- Preparation of the solution
History of the origin of cement
Cement - a well-known astringent building material, which is attributed to hydraulic binders, which are used to join various surfaces - brick or reinforced concrete blocks. Without concrete, it is impossible to make concrete or foundation. In addition to the high viscosity, the material has excellent hydraulic properties, which allows a stable connection with water and other liquids to be created when a solution is produced in the form of a plastic mass. After such a mass has solidified, a stone-like material is obtained which has considerable strength and rigidity.
Astringent materials have been used for construction purposes since ancient times. The very first astringent material was the natural unglazed clay. Over time, however, the builders stopped filling up due to poor moisture resistance and poor astringent properties.
For several millennia, the only binders were air lime and gypsum, but they had insufficient water resistance. And the rapid development of shipping in the 17th and 18th centuries required the creation of new water-resistant binders for the construction of port facilities.
In 1796 the Englishman patented Parker cement called "Roman", which could harden in the air or in the water. In our time, however, these qualities have also lost their practical significance. At the beginning of the 19th century, academician V.M. Severgin described the binding agent obtained by calcining marl followed by grinding. From the second half of the 19th century, Portland cement became an integral part of the construction practice of our warehouse.
Industrialization in the USSR and the rapid build-up of capital determined the growth of the cement industry. The USSR took first place in the manufacture of cement in 1962. Today about 30 types of cement are produced in our country. At the same time, its quality is growing, and the prediction of the well-known chemist Mendeleev, who claims that cement is the building material of the future, will come true.
Process of cement production
Natural cement is a mixture of limestone and clay that, when hardened, forms a high-strength stone-like material, which is most often extracted without odor, is free-flowing and is gray in color. The quality of cement is determined by the presence of various substances - granular slag, magnesium oxide and sulfuric anhydrite. The cement quality depends on the ratio of these components. The proportion of the listed substances will also depend on the quality of the cement, setting time, compressive strength and incorrect setting.
As mentioned above, a mixture of limestone and clay is used as the raw material for the production of Portland cement. What is cement made of? In rare cases, a stone called marl is used, which is exactly the natural mix of clay and limestone in the ratio necessary to make portland cement during the production process. Marl was valued in the 19th century by the Englishman Aspdin, who collected dust on the street near the city of Portland, made briquettes from it, which were then burned.
Cement factories, as a rule, have their careers with the necessary material - clay and limestone. This allows you to withstand the necessary chemical composition of the cargo with high accuracy up to 0.1 percent, which is of great importance. The batch is fired in rotary kilns with a diameter of 3.6 to 7 meters and a length of 100 to 150 meters. The temperature in the sintering zone is kept at plus 1450 degrees Celsius.
The product of sintering is clinker, which is a rounded grain with a diameter of 5 - 100 millimeters. The clinker is ground in ball mills to a specific surface area of 3000 square centimeters per gram. Without a doubt, 5% of the two-water gypsum is added by grinding, which plays the role of a setting time regulator. Without plaster of paris, the so-called cement biscuit is formed, which immediately cracks and from which it is impossible to prepare the dough. All clinker minerals can interact with water and form new compounds - hydrates. Hydrates form a spatial structure that creates a cement stone.
Application of cement in construction
Cement is used to build a foundation, and mortar is used for laying bricks, pouring screeds for floors, creating paths and blind areas. It is used for prefabricated and monolithic concrete, which serves as a raw material for the manufacture of reinforced concrete, asbestos-cement products, various artificial materials, solutions, fastening of individual parts of structures and thermal insulation. The gas and oil industries are major customers for cement.
Cement and building materials extracted on this basis are able to successfully replace the construction of scarce wood, lime, brick and other traditional materials. A little later we will talk about how we can make cement and a cement solution ourselves. The use of cement in various construction areas is closely related to its technical properties. Let's take a closer look at this relationship.
Frost resistance is a property that characterizes the ability of a material to be frozen and thawed repeatedly over a long period of time. This ability is not pure cement, this property is obtained through various modifying additives. If you live in the cold strips of the country and the high frost resistance of the structure is important to you, then you should choose a hydrophobic cement 500.
Corrosion resistance determines the ability of cement to withstand almost every aggressive factor in the external environment. The increased resistance to corrosion is characterized by pozzolana cement, which is intended for the construction of submarine and underground structures.
Sulphate resistance is a property of a powder that a building material mixture can be stable in an aqueous medium that contains sulphate ions. This property is embodied in sulphate-resistant cement, which is used in the construction of hydraulic structures that are exposed to salt water.
Water resistance as a property of cement has found application in waterproof expanding cement. Cement can increase in volume when it hardens, the setting process takes place fairly quickly - in about 10 minutes. Waterproof swelling cement is required to seal joints and seams in concrete structures that are in the water.
The fineness of the grinding is attributed to the property that affects the setting time, hardening and strength of the concrete. The finer the clinker is ground, the higher the strength of the cement. It should be remembered that grinding too finely causes excessive water consumption and lower concrete strength instead of excellent properties.
Manufacture of cement mortar with your own hands
If you want to minimize the cost of repair or construction, it is worth forgetting about the ready-made mixes, the price of which is much higher than the cost of cement and sand necessary to get an equal volume of cement mortar. The main thing you need to prepare the mortar is high-quality cement. We already talked about the correct choice of this material in the previous article. Now let's talk about how to make cement and its solution at home.
Cement at home
The production of cement at home makes it possible to keep this indispensable material in construction with a minimum of resources and to provide it with the desired properties. We offer you to familiarize yourself with the common methods of independent production of cement.
Putty to repair cracks and gaps in the flooring made this way: mixes with lime and coal ash to form a diluted water oily consistency of cream. For the manufacture of cement, putty iron intended for utensils, wells, steam boilers and holes in the metal product, take forty parts of heavy spar whiting chalk, thirty parts of graphite dust, fifteen parts of lime and knead the resulting mixture to the desired density with the addition of linseed oil varnish.
To fix in iron stone make his hands from the following components cement: sand (20 parts), kaolin (2 parts), ground chalk (4 parts), calcium hydroxide (3 parts), sodium silicate (15 parts), mix all until homogeneous Dough. For the production of the following ceramics you need cement: Mash 2 parts of hydrated lime with 5 egg whites, diluted with a mixture of 2 parts of water Mash with 10 parts of gypsum.
For the manufacture of cement for stone, it is recommended to mix 10 parts of sulfur and bitumen 1 part of beeswax. Massage the melt, then add 2 parts of the brick powder. Immediately before applying the solution, dry the stone and oil with linseed oil. For pipes, mix 15 parts of linseed oil or linseed oil and 85 parts of lead oxide in a heated mortar until a plastic mixture is obtained.
For the production of glycerin cement, you need a lead gland, which should be carefully rubbed into powder and dried at a high temperature. Mix the resulting dust with glycerin. The technological properties of cement produced using this recipe are many times higher than those of the Portland cement factory. Such a material is characterized by a high density and resistance to negative environmental influences.
Domestic glycerine cement is not afraid of high temperatures: it is able to withstand the rise in temperature even up to plus 300 degrees Celsius. Another important practical property of glycerine cement is its ability to firmly bond porcelain and faience objects. It can safely be said that this material is a real ideal cement.
Europeans recently invented a new way of making cement that has unique properties. Such a Chinese cement is able to glue leather, plaster of paris, marble, porcelain, faience and other materials. The following components are required for the production of cement: slaked lime (54 parts), quartz (6 parts), fresh blood! (40 parts). The resulting mixture must be carefully ground until a uniform mixture is formed.
Preparation of materials
The first stage of making cement mortar is preparation. Choose the capacity in which you will be building cement. The packaging volume must necessarily correspond to the planned volume. If the dishes are less than the planned volume, then you will likely be picking up the solution from the floor. If the container is too big, you won't be able to create a uniform mass that won't break into pieces.
In addition, a sufficiently stable capacity is required. Notice how thick the walls of the tank are. It is also not advisable to take the container with low low walls, because they do not allow a qualitative solution. The best solution at home is an old cast iron bathroom.
In addition to the trays for the mass, you will need a special tool for the most convenient solution. Usually it is customary to use a special construction mixer, but our skilled compatriots adapt an ordinary drill with accessories for this purpose.
If a bag of cement has been stored in your garage for years, it should be abandoned. In order to get a high-quality solution, the technical properties of the sand are also important: homogeneity, purity and the absence of impurities. The best option is washed career sand.
Before the workplace the necessary tools and materials as close as possible so as not to find yourself in a difficult situation when you need to "run" the components of the solution. Next, to prepare cement solution powders, sift lumps to avoid formation and fall into the waste mass, which greatly affects their binding properties and quality. When preparing a solution of cement for the need for plastering for stone, use a sieve with a 5 x 5 mm, - with a mesh size of 10 to 10 millimeters.
After that, it is necessary to determine the ratio in the composition of the solution of each element. At this time, it must be remembered that when using high-quality cement, the admixture of sand should be insignificant or nominal. Also remember the classic ratio that construction workers have long used: 1 part cement is mixed with 3 parts sand. All incoming components are measured using specific pans or scales.
In construction, it is often necessary not to make cement according to the traditional recipe that is used on all construction sites around the world. Due to various impurities, non-standard mixtures are obtained. You are able to modify the properties of the cement solution, for example to change the rate of solidification of the substance or the slow speed for continuous operation, with a solution that improves the properties of the bulk viscosity on plastic, and it has shown to work more flexibly in difficult areas.
There are such types of cement mortars: normal, greasy and lean. A greasy cement slurry is a mixture that contains too much binder. This solution is able to solidify quickly, but after use it dries and forms cracks, so it is short-lived.
A normal cement slurry is called a mass, in which the proportions of the elements are correctly observed. Such a solution will not go too fast, but it will not crack, it will be strong and durable. A lean cement slurry is a mass in which the binder component is insufficient. Such a solution will not be used if you do not decide how to dilute the cement.
Regardless of the recipe for the manufacture of cement mortar, a mixture that does not spread during operation is characterized by a high or medium level of viscosity. The mixture along with this should not be too dry, because it does not apply to the loss of mortar qualities provoking in this case masonry fixation.
Preparation of the solution
So, pour a layer of cement into the container, then a layer of sand, then cement again, and then sand again. The number of such layers should be at least six, this enables a qualitative mixing of the components. Cement and sand are poured in layers in the form of beds at a total height of about 200 to 300 millimeters.
To begin with, competently mix the sand with cement. This garden is shoveled up to the uniform several times with shovels. When mixing, don't forget the term "intensity". Without a special mixing process, you cannot get a quality solution. It is recommended that you then sift the mixture through a frequent sieve that has a cell size of 3 to 3 millimeters, but no less. The homogeneity of the mixture should be almost absolute.
Do not add water and other liquids when mixing dry ingredients. Adding liquid to the resulting mixture should be done gradually and very carefully. Pour in the water slowly so that the mass has the right consistency. If you have more water than you need, you can stop on time with a gradual infusion.
Remember that the temperature of the liquid shouldn't be too high or extremely low. Take the water with the optimal temperature regime what the environment is. Masonry needs a thicker solution and the filling process is more fluid. Don't mix a lot of cement mortar at once, especially if you've used wet sand. Now you know how to make cement mortar at home.
And finally, remember that the cement solution is a material that cannot be stored. This is due to the high viscosity properties of the cement, so the solution is able to set quickly and make it unsuitable for use in construction work. The composition that you received after properly mixing it is available for working for an hour with wet sand, and up to three hours for drying dry sand.
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